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'^ol. XVI: No. 6 APRIL, 1913 Price 10 Cents 



How the Christian Church Evolved a Pope 

I A Continuation of The Hi^ory of the Papacy and the Popes) 

Additional Fads and Thoughts Concerning 
Foreign Missions 

Open Letter to Cardinal Gibbons 

No. 11 

Book Reviews 



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: Vol. XVI. APRIL No. 6 


FRONTISPIECE — To Those Who Fight and Fail Samuel Harvey Lyle, Jr. 

EDITORIAIiS — Thos. E. Watson. 







A KIND OP HALF ENGAGEMENT TO ELLEN Isabel Eccleston Mackey 325 

G'ENERAL LEE AFTER THE WAR . . Margaret J. Preston • 333 

THE ROMAN CHURCH IN SPAIN . . . J. J. Bosdan 341 

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Watson's Magazine 

THOS. E. WATSON. Editor 

How the Christian Church Evolved a Pope 

(A Continuation of the History of the Papacy and the Popes) 

THE unknown person who went to 
the palace gate of Constantine 
and affixed to it the insulting pas- 
quinade which compared him to the 
Emperor Nero, may have changed the 
course of history. 

Constantine had committed every 
crime which was serviceable to his 
ambition. He had stopped at no 
treachery, no sacrilege, no fraud, no 
ruthless brutality. 

Having become the master of the 
world, he developed a suspicion that 
was as destructive as his inhumanity. 

He murdered his son, Crispus, a bril- 
liant, popular prince. He murdered 
his nephew Licinius; and he suffocated 
in a steam bath Fausta, his wife of 
twenty years, the mother of his three 

Accustomed as the Eoman people 
were to imperial crimes, they were 
horrified by the atrocities of Constan- 

In one way or another, public feeling 
will manifest itself: hence the pasqui- 
nade hanging to the palace gate. 

The fury of the Emperor was so 
great, he at first meditated a massacre 
of the Roman populace. 

It is said that he conferred with his 
brothers on this measure of vengeance. 
They advised him to a course still more 
deadly to imperial Rome, and he 
determined to degrade the city of the 
Seven Hills and of the Tiber, by build- 
ing a new capital on the Hellespont — 
the cross-roads of the international 
commerce of the Old World. 

As the Roman Church yet reveres 
the memory of Constantine, and dates 
its power from his reign, it may be well 
to remind the reader that this saintly 
Emperor restored pagan temples on the 
one hand, while he founded Christian 
churches on the other. 

Heathen sacrifices were encouraged 
among the pagans, just as Christian 
ceremonies were protected among the 

In medals which he caused to be 
struck, his own title of god appeared 
with the monogram of Christ. 

On the great porphyry pillar, one 
hundred and twenty feet in height, 
which he erected in Constantinople, the 
crowning statue was Apollo with the 
face Constantine, and rays around the 
head representing the nails of the Cross 
of Christ, or the beams of the sun, 
according to the fancy of the beholder. 

Still more important is the fact that 
in his famous edict of Milan, Constan- 
tine gave liberty of worship, both to 
Pagans and to Christians. 

Not until he was practically on his 
death-bed, did the great Emperor him- 
self embrace the faith, and submit to 
baptism. To the very last possible 
moment, he retained his full liberty to 
commit crime. 

When he was no longer able to 
oppress, imprison, torture, and murder, 
he joined the church. 

With the removal of the Emperor 
and the seat of empire to a distant part 



of the Roman world, it can readily be 
seen that the Bishop of Rome became 
a much more important personage, in 
the eternal city. He was no longer 
overshadowed by the Emperor. He 
was no longer overawed by the fact that 
Rome was the Imperial capital of a 
vast empire. 

The loss of prestige by the city itself, 
and the permanent absence of the 
Emperor, both contributed to enhance 
the dignity and the power of the 
Bishop of Rome ; he at once became the 
local great man. That his greatness 
should enlarge itself and spread over 
the West, was a natural, logical conse- 
quence of the division of the Empire 
along geogi-aphical lines. 

We are not surprised therefore, 
Avhen we find the power of the Bishop 
of Constantinople extending itself 
throughout the Eastern empire, while 
that of the Bishop of Rome dominates 
the Empire of the West. 

That the Bishop of Rome enjoyed 
an advantage over the Bishop of Con- 
stantinople is obvious: the Emperor 
overshadoAved the one, by his presence 
in the same city: the other was the 
more independent, in that no over-lord 
representing the State was at hand to 
curb his encroachments. 

"What was it that gave rise to the 
question of supremacy in the Christian 
Church? The answer is, disputes 
about faith. There being a boundless 
realm for differences of opinion, it is 
not surprising that honest men differed. 

When those differences became vital 
and irreconcilable, it became a neces- 
sity that some tribunal should speak 
with the voice of authority. 

How this authority was first exer- 
cised by the church members them- 
selves, then by the Emperor, then by 
general councils made up of the bish- 
ops, and then by the Pope of Rome, is 
one of the most instructive chapters in 
human history. 

It was the most natural thing in the 
world that differences of opinion 
should arise among the Christians 

Their Master was not a graduate of 
the schools, either sacred or profane. 
He had not been taught in the temples, 
as Moses had been : He had not 
exhausted the lore of the Academies, as 
Socrates, Plato and Confucius had 
done. True, He was familiar with the 
garnered wisdom of His people 
embodied in the Talmud and in the 
sacred parchments — as He amply 
proved by His Sermon on the Mount. 

But Christ did not put His teachings 
into written form, nor could any of the 
Twelve do it. They were poor men 
and illiterate. 

(If it were an original proposition, 
I would certainly say that the Scrip- 
tures did not describe Matthew as a 
Tax-collector. An imperial oflScer 
could not have been called away from 
his office suddenly and unceremoni- 
ously, without the causing oi trouble 
to himself and to the public service. 
Therefore, I Avould favor the text 
which represented Matthew as "sitting 
at his accustomed place," rather than 
that Avhich described him as "sitting 
at the receipt of customs." 

It is altogether unlike Jesus to have 
ordered any man to shirk his duty, 
abandon a post of trust, and throw into 
at least temporary confusion the 
orderly administration of State affairs. 

Besides, the Romans did not have, 
in Jiidea or elsewhere, stationary tax- 
collectors, or custom-house officers, of 
the minor sort who would have dared 
to risk their heads by flippantly desert- 
ing the service of the emperor, leaving 
his accounts to settle themselves. 

Christ never wilfully violated a law, 
nor encouraged lawlessness: to have 
compelled a swoi^n o^icer to abandon 
his duties and to ivalk off^ in defiance 
of legal ohligatimis, was something 
that Jesus could not consistently do.) 



As the Rev. Dr. Andrew IT. Newman 
says : 

"Until after the middle of the second 
century, there was no such thing as a 
definite New Testament canon," (Vol. 
L, p. 300. A Manual of ahi/reh His- 

This statement we may accept as the 
latest and most approved verdict of 
modern orthodoxy. Dr. Newman is an 
approved orthodox scholar: his book is 
the fruit of his life-long explorations in 
the troubled Avaters and cross-currents 
of orthodox ecclesiastical erudition. 

AVhen the learned Dr. Newman tells 
us that the Christians had no New 
Testament until about 150 years after 
Christ, Ave may be sure that the best 
possible conclusion has been reached. 

The moment your mind grasps the 
fact that the Christian Church had no 
Bible during the first century of its 
existence, you can realize how natural 
it was that differences of opinion should 

Then, when you remember that 
Christ was a Jcav^ that the Twelve were 
Jews, that Paul was a Jcav and that 
Luke was a Greek, you can readily 
appreciate the vast obstacles to be sur- 
mounted when the new religion arising 
among Jews, was to be proclaimed 
throughout the nations. 

Necessarily, the first of all the con- 
troversies sprung out of the difference 
betAveen Jew and Gentile. 

Over this vexatious question, Paul 
and Peter differed and Avrangled. 
Churches were divided on it. The 
mother-church at Jerusalem was 
appealed to for a decision, and the 
mother-church evaded the issue. 

Peter not only did not call this first 
Council of the Christian Church, but 
he did not preside over it, nor secure 
the adoption of his vieAvs. 

As Apostle to the HebreAvs, Peter 
Avished to adhere to Mosiac laAv con- 
cerning hog-meat, circumcision, etc., 
w^hile Paul, as Apostle to the Gentile, 

took the opposite view^ insisting that 
salvation Avas through faith, and that 
Hebraic laAv and rites were no part of 
the essential Gospel of Christ. 

On this first great clash of doctrine, 
it Avas Paul avIio prev'ailed : it was 
Peter aa'Iio Avas rebuked and defeated. 

Tliis may be as good a place as any 

to raise the question — 

Was Peter ever at Rome? 

The '■'•Acts of the Apostles'''' singu- 
larly fails as an inspired record of the 
doings of the TAvelve, after Christ, if 
the narrative omits the most tremend- 
ously and permanently important thing 
that was done. 

If Peter, "the rock," went to Rome, 
with "the keys," and established him- 
self and his rock and his keys there, 
becoming the head of the Church, 
the Pontiff, the vice-gerent of Christ 
on earth, how could such a portentous 
fact escape the notice of Seneca, of 
Pliny, of Josephus, of Tacitus, of Paul, 
of Barnabas, of Luke, and of Peter 

The profane historians who tell us 
that Alexander the Great had a slight 
tAvist in his neck, that Nero was near- 
sighted, that Sylla had a muddy co-ni- 
plexion, that Mark Antony got drunk 
and A^omited in the forum, that Herod 
Avas devoured by Avorms, etc., Avere won- 
derfully silent about Peter, who, 
according to Roman Catholicism was 
Pope for 25 years, in Rome itself. 

Remember that the pagans had their 
OAA'n Pope in those days : how then 
could two Popes have lived in peace in 
the same towm — one of said Popes being 
an all-poAverful emperor? 

Julius Caesar Avas a pagan Pope ; his 
nephew, the Emperor Augustus, was a 
pagan Pope; the stepson of Augustus 
Avas emperor Avhen Christ was cruci- 
fied, and at the time when Peter is 
alleged to have been the Christian Pope 
of Rome. 

NoAv, Tiberius — the stepson of 
Augustus — AA'as one of the gloomiest, 



cruellest, most suspicious monarchs 
that ever wore a crown. He was Ponti- 
fex Maximus of the pagan religion, and 
that religion was the State religion. 

How\ then, can we believe that ho 
would have meekly, uncomplainingly 
have tolerated a rival Pope, right there 
in the capital city? 

We are told that Herod, a mere sat- 
rap of a Roman ])rovince became, 
frenziedly jealous of a hahe in the 
cradle; and that he ordered the massa- 
cre of all first-born babes in the regions 
round about, hoping to get rid of a 
possible future rival. 

But here was Tiberius, the most 
abnormally suspicious and ruthless of 
rulers, confronted loith a PRESENT 
rival in world empire^ and yet he lifts 
not a finger against the audacious 
Peter ! 

Surely in the close keeping of danger- 
ous secrets, there never was so danger- 
ous a secret so closely kept as that 
Simon Peter set up Popery in Rome, 
at a time when the frown of the pagan 
Pontifex was the death-warrant from 
which there was no appeal or escape — 
the Emperor being also the Pontifex. 

Paganism being the State religion, 
disobedience and sacrilege were trea- 

It was upon accusations of treason^ 
that many Christians were put to 
death, long after Peter is alleged to 
have established Poj^ery in Rome. 

The only hope of Peter was, to keep 
his secret. He kept it. Tiberius knew 
nothing of this rival^ treasonous Ponti- 
fex. Roman historians knew nothing of 
him. Jewish historians were ignorant 
of him. The author of the Acts of the 
Apostles knew nothing of the most stu- 
pendous fact of Christian history. The 
vision who inspired Paul to go to Rome 
and bear witness for Christ, was ignor- 
ant of the fact that a much better wit- 
ness was already there. Paul never saw 
Peter at Rome, nor heard of his being 

And Peter himself was so unlucky as 

to be in prison, in Judea, at the very 
time when the Roman Catholics allege 
that he was gloriously enthroned at 
Rome, the first of the Christian Popes! 

Ordered to carry the Gospel to the 
Hebrews, Peter seemed to believe that 
he did so. His co-workers thought that 
he did so. The sacred record places 
him at Jerusalem, among the Jews; at 
Antioch, among the Jews; at Babylon, 
among the Jews. 

Judging by Scriptural story, we 
would say without misgiving that Peter 
lived, worked and died among the peo- 
ple to whom he was especially sent; 
and that Paul lived, worked and died 
among the people to whom lie was espe- 
cially commissioned. 

When Peter himself says that he is 
at Babylon, we would judge that he was 
not at Rome — for Peter, of all men, 
knew best where he was, and Babylon 
was then a city easily accessible from 
Antioch, (by boating down the Tigris) 
and there were more Jews in that part 
of the icorld than there were anywhere 
else on earth. 

They were so numerous that they 
stirred up the revolt against the 
Romans, when the emperors were 
endeavoring to plant the eagles beyond 
the Euphrates. 

Summing up the facts, we find this 
to be the case: 

Neither pagan nor Christian authori- 
ties; neither Tiberius, Paul, nor Peter 
knew that Peter had ever been in 
Rome; and the Christian Church, 
adopted the New Testament books as 
inspired truth, well knowing that those 
canonical writings absolutely negatived 
the proposition that any Apostle was 
primate, and that Peter had been at 
Rome — much less a 25 year Pope, there. 

On the contrary, what evidence does 
Rome present? 

None. Practically, she denies Holy 
Writ, and bases her claims upon "tra- 
dition" of her own manufacture. 



As stated, differences arose among 
the Christians; and it was necessary 
that some tribunal pass upon and settle 
these disputed points. Besides there 
were so many manuscript Gospels in 
use that it was necessary to the unity 
of the Church for the chaff to be sepa- 
rated from the wheat. 

In this way, Councils became indis- 
pensable. The Christian churches, each 
acting independently of the others, 
chose delegates to the General Meeting; 
and in these meetings all churches had 
an equal voice and vote. 

By far the most important of all 
these early Councils were those which 
were called to decide upon a New 
Testament. It was not until nearly 400 
years after Christ that the Gospel, sub- 
stantially as we now have it, was finally 

The Council of Antioch, (A. D. 269.) 
decreed that it was both heretical and 
damnable to hold that the Son of God 
was of like substance with the Father. 

There Avas no bishop at this Council 
who pretended to be superior to any 
other bishop much less suzerian over 

At the Council of Nice (A. D. 325.) 
the Emperor Constantine presided, as 
head of both State and Church. To 
this Council came 318 bishops, "some by 
ships, some by chariots, some on camels 
in caravans, some were carried in chairs 
and some borne on litters," for these lat- 
ter had limbs that had been deadened 
in the flames of pagan persecution. 

Although these Christian bishops 
came from all parts of the Empire- 
Asia, Africa, and Europe — no one 
came as Universal Bishop, and no one 
presented any claim of precedence for 
the bishops of Rome. 

The Council of Nicaa decided that 
the Son was of the same substance with 

the Father, co-existent with the Father, 
but, clothed with the flesh for our sal- 
vation, suffered, rose again, etc. 

It was Constantine, the Emperor, who 
summoned this Council, who largely 
directed it, who often addressed it, and 
who linally confirmed its decrees. If 
any bishop was accorded precedence, 
it was the illustrious Hosius of Cor- 
dova, Spain . 

(See Papal System, by Cathcart, p. 
37, and authorities there cited.) 

Now, the Sixth canon of the Council 
of Nice expressly puts the bishops of 
Rome on an equal footing with the 
bishops of Alexandria, Antioch, Car- 
thage and Constantinople; and this 
equality of the one Metropolitan with 
the others is proclaimed in accordance 
with the ancient custom. 

Nothing could be more authentic and 
conclusive: the Council decrees it; the 
Emperor confirms it ; the delegates who 
represent the Bishop of Rome acquiesce 
in it; the whole Christian world 
accepts it. 

How can the advocates of Popery get 
round the great Council of Nicsea? 

What effect can mythical tradition 
have against ^Hhis rock?" 

If ever there was a time for Rome 
to "howl," and to set forth her suprem- 
acy based upon Petros, and Petra and 
the keys, and the Apostolic succession, 
it was at this Council, where the mar- 
tyrs were in evidence, where the first 
Christian monarch was in authority, 
where the whole church was in 
Congress to discuss fundamental doc- 
trines, and to formulate a fundamental, 
everlasting creed. 

Silent theii.^ Rome should have, for- 
ever after, held her tongue. 

No Pojye of Rome THEN, none after- 

(to be CONTINUED.) 

Some Additional- Facts and Thoughts 
Concerning Foreign Missions 

No. 1 

WOE unto the man who combats 
current opinion : he finds Jor- 
dan a hard road to travel. 
Sometimes^ 1 am inclined to believe that 
the greatest of all miracles were the 
Reformation, Religious toleration, 
Freedom of speech, Popular sover- 
eignty and Secular education. 

When I remember that it was only a 
few years ago, historically speaking, 
that Algernon Sidney's head was 
struck olf on the block, for having 
written, and locked up in his desk, one 
of the glorious principles of our Decla- 
ration of Independence; when I con- 
sider that the Roman Church for many 
centuries acted upon the priestly adage 

'"'' Ignorance is the mother of devo- 
tionf when I reflect that it was a crime 
to own a Bible, or to sa}- that the earth 
was not flat, I am overwhelmed with 
admiration for the intrepid souls who 
could not be blinded or silenced, but 
who saw the light, proclaimed truth, 
and battled for the freedom of mind 
and conscience in spite of rack and 
dungeon and headman's axe. 

AVhenever I am tempted to think ill 
of human nature, to despond over its 
apathy, to lament its selfishness, to 
deplore its cowardice, and to despair 
of its future, I have only to call up in 
memory the sjDlendid records of the 
past, and to read once again the names 
of the heroes inscribed there — heroes 
who took the unjDopular side, who 
championed the minorit}^ cause, who 
had to look for reward and consolation 
from the inner man, and the still, small 
voice of an approving conscience. 

To such men we owe all that we pos- 
sess in the w-ay of civil and religious 
libert}^ But for them^ we would yet be 

the abject slaves, in soul and body of 
popes and kings. 

Of this persecution of the Noncon- 
formist, I have experienced a great 
deal. I know the bitterness of the cup. 

Some 20 3^ears ago, I was driven out 
of Congress, hy criminal methods^ 
because of my adherence to the very 
princii^les which recently overthrew 
the Republican party and placed the 
Democrats in power. That neither 
member of Wilson's Cabinet, nor Wil- 
son himself, has ever ever fought a 
single battle for those principles, sim- 
ply accentuates the worldly unwisdom 
of the pioneers who clear the field and 
sow the seed. 

Wilson and his cabinet are the reap- 
ers: Watson & Co. were the sowers. 

What matters it who clears the 
ground, breaks the sod and sows the 
seed, if the i^eople get the bread? It 
does not matter. 

H: * :;: * * 

Some 20 years ago, I ventured to 
criticise political methods then pre- 
vailing: some four years ago, I ven- 
tured to criticise certain church meth- 
ods which seemed to me vitally wrong: 
it would be hard to say whose resent- 
ment was the most savage, the politi- 
cians who Avere arraigned, or the eccle- 
siastical authorities who were chal- 

But after the 20 years had rolled by, 
the people revolutionized their political 
ideals. Perhaps another 20 years may 
do the same work in the church. I will 
not be here to see the change ; but many 
who now read what I have to say will 
be here to see it, and they will see it. 

Nothing is more certain than that the 
present methods in Foreign Missions 
will be condemned, and dropped. They 



are new-fangled, they are man-made, 
the}' are unscriptural, they are unpa- 
triotic, they are unnatural, and they are 
a flat failure. They are of the earth, 
earthy ; and they are doomed to perish. 
Already the load is becoming intoler- 
able to the churches, and a stumbling 
block in the way of the people: yet a 
little while, and the huge superstruc- 
ture which men have reared upon the 
Biblical basis of Gospel-preaching, will 
tumble of its own weight, and disap- 
pear forever. 


In the Baltimore Southe?vi Metho- 
dist, Rev. Carlton B. Harris has been 
publishing a series of editorials entitled 
"The fallacies of Hon. Thos. E. Wat- 
son's book, 'Foreign Missions 
Exposed.' " 

Let me do Mr. Harris the justice to 
say, that he has argued his case like a 
gentleman. He has not dwelt upon my 
alleged failure in politics, my abysmal 
ignorance, my essential meanness, nor 
my general cussedness. He has almost 
treated me as though I were a decent 
human being — a biped not entirely 
removed beyond the pale of decorus 
consideration. For this unexampled 
forbearance, I beg Mr. Harris to accept 
my thaidis. 

Having read Mr. Harris' articles 
with care, I am at a loss to say which 
of my "fallacies" he punctured. 

Some of my statements he contra- 
dicted, or api^arently demolished. For 
instance, he asserts that the mission- 
aries did not present to our Govern- 
ment any considerable claims for jew- 
eln/^ lost during the Boxer rebellion in 
China. Mr. Harris quotes Dr. A. J. 
Brown, Secretary of the Board of For- 
eign Missions of the Presbyterian 

On a charge so grave, I regret that 
Brother Harris did not introduce some 
witness not connected, in a salaried 
way^ with one of the Boards. 

In the trial of railroad cases, juries 
never pay much attention to the unsup- 
])orted evidence of railroad employees. 
This may be wrong: in many cases 
(hose euii)l()yees are most honorable 
men : but their interest^ their depend- 
ence on the corporation for the support 
of their families, is remembered against 
them ; and their testimony is discounted, 

Now, Dr. A. J. Brown is no doubt a 
good man ; but he is not a disinterested 
witness. He is an employee of the 
Board. He gets his living out of For- 
eign Missions. Therefore, it is human 
for him to think well of that system. 

It is also natural for him to defend 
others who likewise get their living out 
of the same system — and there we are ! 

Couldn't Brother Harris find any 
other witness? Did he try any mem- 
ber of Congress? Bid, he interrogate 

It was Senator Lodge who was 
quoted and reported as expressing his 
disgust at the size of the claims put in 
by the soul-savers, for jewelry lost in 
the rebellion. 

Did the missionaries take a hand in 
the looting? Did the soul-savers help 
the soldiers relieve the heathen Chinee 
of his portable ])ro])erty? 

This is a painful question. Let us 
deal with it gently. 

P>om the New York Sun. I clip the 

Tn an interview at Detroit on Saturday, 
the Rev. Dr. Ament was reported as mak- 
ing a square answer to a square question: 

" 'Did the missionaries loot?' 

" 'No, jiositively no,' said the doctor. 
'There is little use in denying these lies, 
but nevertheless I am fighting the sland- 
erers witli all my strength and am in the 
right trim tor it.' " 

In The Sun of March 24, the Rev. Dr. 
Ament said, in an interview furnished by 
himself u])on the understanding that no 
word of his should be altered or sup- 

"In explanation of anything the mission- 
aries may have done in the line of looting, 
it is only right to say that a famine was 
predicted for the coming winter, that they 



had hundreds of people in their charge 
who were in immediate need of food, cloth- 
ing and shelter, and who looked to the 
missionary for assistance. It is but justice 
to them to say that if in the ardor of their 
desire to provide for their people they did 
some things that attracted criticism, they 
did it with the best of intentions and hon- 
est desire to provide for the people for 
whom they felt more or less responsible." 

In the same Detroit interview wherein 
Dr. Ament is reported as denying positively 
and indignantly that the missionaries 
looted, he is further reported as questioned 
and answering as following: 

" 'Did you yourself take anything from 
any premises or person except what you 
found in the palace of the Manchu prince, 
which you took possession of and which is 
now the home of your mission in Pekin?' 

" 'Well,' said the doctor, slowly, 'last 
summer in Pekin was not a time for ethe- 
real virtue, and 1' will answer that question 
like this: One of my native converts named 
Choo, who had been employed as cook for 
a wealthy Chinese family of thirteen per- 
sons, came to me excitedly and said: "Eight 
of my employer's family have hanged 
themselves in their own house when the 
allied troops entered Pekin and more than 
one hundred Chinese are in the palace 

" 'I went over there and did take three 
cart loads of clothing. The Cliinese kept 
on taking goods while I took the three 
loads. They consisted of clothing and 100 
taels (?70") in silver. I gave the silver 
back to the survivors of this unfortunate 
family, and the clothing I gave to my 
native converts, for they were in great 

" 'Were the bodies of the eight suicides 
in the house when you took the goods?' 

" 'Yes.' 

" 'Who burled them?' 

" 'I don't know.' '• 

We make no comment. We merely pre- 
sent the picture as Dr. Ament himself is 
reported as drawing it: and, leaving out 
of consideration any distinction between 
ordinary honesty and "ethereal virtue," we 
ask this question: 

When, in the ghastly presence of the 
eight unburied suicides, the heathen Chi- 
nese looters and th« Rev. Dr. Ament were 
scrambling for the possesion of the belong- 
ings of the unfortunate family, what fact 
or what principle of ethics was it that made 
the act looting on the part of the heathen 
Chinese, who possibly had their own poor 
to clothe, and not looting on the part of 
the Christian missionary, with his carts 
backed up at the gateway of the house of 

It was no time for "ethereal virtue." 
as the Rev. Dr. Ament remarked. It 
was time to loot, and the missionaries 

looted. They not only robbed the Chi- 
nese, but they robbed the dead Chinese. 

What, oh, what ! did "my native con- 
vert, Choo," think of this gruesome, 
ghastly robbery of the dead? Did 
Choo backslide? 

And what does Brother Harris think 
of the missionary who unloaded that 
fearful deed upon "one of my native 
converts, named Choo?" 

Dr. Ament not only stole from the 
dead, but laid the crime at the door of 
one of his "converts." The convert 
wanted to steal, and the missionary 
fell right into line. We know what Dr. 
Ament says in his own defense — but 
what says Choo? Wasn't it a shame 
for him to seduce Dr. Ament into loot- 
ing the dead? 

In the Westminister Gazette (Lon- 
don) there was published the descrip- 
tion which George Lynch gave of the 
missionary lootings in Pekin — time of 
the Boxer rebellion. To be perfectly 
fair, I quote it in full: 

London, June 1.— Writing of what he 
saw in Pekin for the Westminster Gazette, 
George Lynch describes how th^ Sisters of 
Charity of the Mission of Pietang, after 
relief had arrived, strove at once to begin 
their labors again and nurse and feed and 
teach the children that remained. 

"Their talk," he says, "was not of com- 
pensation. It was merely of how they 
could get their ruined mission house fit for 
work again — the work for which they had 
left father and mother and friends and 
their homes in far-off France. 

"It was not the same elsewhere, how- 
ever. There were some missionaries who 
appeared to take a different view of the 
situation. Already they were lodging 
claims with their respective Consuls, and 
in order to guard themselves against the 
dilatoriness of uncertainty of action of 
their various Governments, they were tak- 
ing measures to secure immediate compen- 

"One reverend gentleman, for instance, 
was to be seen day after day holding a sale 
of loot in a house that he had taken pos- 
session of. Another, an American, was 
carrying on a similar sale in a palatial 
mansion which he had commandeered. The 
latter was to be seen surrounded by jade 
and porcelain vases, costly embroideries 
from the spoiled temples, sable cloaks and 
various other furs, and rows of Buddhas 



arranged like wild fowl in a poulterer's 
shop. As his stocic became depleted he 
was in a position to ask any unsatisfied 
customer to call in again, as his converts 
were bringing in fresh supplies of loot 
almost every day! 

"Indeed, not satisfied with the proceeds 
of his loot sale, this worthy man was enter- 
prising enough to levy compensation on 
the Chinese, and, in addition to recovering 
the full value of the damage sustained by 
his converts, inflicted fines that exceeded 
that amount — according to his own admis- 
sion — by one-third. 

"There are others who took possession 
of Chinese houses wholesale, and found a 
source of income in letting or leasing them. 
The fact of their having a number of con- 
verts to support was given by them as a 
justification of their actions. Unquestion- 
ably they had a large number more or less 
dependent upon them, but some other 
means might surely have been found. They 
were very busy in those days. And per- 
haps that accounts for their taking no 
notice of the actions of various portions 
of the allied soldiery. Wholesale robbery, 
cruelty, and the raping of women were 
going on all round; a regular orgy of 
rapine surged through the captured city. 
Yet not one solitary voice of protest was 

"It would be gratifying to think that 
amid all these exponents of the doctrine of 
the Sermon on the Mount, there was one 
who called for mercy on the conquered, or 
asked that even common humanity should 
be shown them, or even reminded the gen- 
erals of their own rules of war and fair 
fighting, or who raised his voice for justice, 
even if he did not in compassion. What 
an opportunity lost, which would not have 
been thrown away on the Chinese, of show- 
ing in practice what they had been preach- 
ing — 'Bless them that curse you, do good 
to them that hate you, pray for them that 
despitefully use you.' If instead of selling 
images of Buddah they had used their 
influence to preserve his temples from 
desecration and defilement, or offered sanc- 
tuary to his priests, it is certain that they 
would have more materially furthered the 
cause they have in hand. 

"It would be wrong to say that not one 
solitary voice was raised. 'Tis true it was 
not raised by any misisonary. But there 
Is a rough-looking soldier with a strong 
face that looks as if it had been hewn out 
of a block of red sandstone with a blunt 
hatchet — Gen. Chaffee of the United States 
Army. He would be called in England a 
'ranker.' He, not content, as Sir Alfred 
Gaselee was, with keeping his own men 
from disgracing their country's flag, wrote 
a letter of remonstrance to Count Walder- 
see, and received a snub in return for an 
action which nevertheless redounds 
immensely to his credit. 

"Christianity in China has received a 
staggering blow from which it will not 

recover during the lives of the present 
generation. Its progress, so far as any one 
can see, in the immediate future is at an 
end. It is even questionable whether it 
will not be wiped out altogether in North- 
ern China. The terrible assaults by Box- 
ers will largely decrease the number of 
converts. The temporal advantages that 
formerly ensued from its profession are 
now more than counter-balanced by the 
hatred and persecution that Christianity 
entails. The worst blow it has received 
has been through the conduct of the allied 
soldiery during the late invasion. These 
men have crucified it in China as truly as 
the soldiers of Pilate did its Founder. And 
even the Christian missionaries raised no 
protest against the crucifixion." 

Ill the New York San^ the following 

The Rev. Gilbert Raid Again. 

In a cynical and flippant article in the 
Forum, the Rev. Gilbert Reid, an Ameri- 
can missionary in China, continues to 
develop his ideas of the ethics of looting. 
It may be remembered that the Rev. Mr. 
Reid wrote in March last a letter to the 
North China Herald in which he confessed 
his personal share in the rape of the 
"enemy's" goods. He then said: 

"Now and then I branched out to loot 
from those who were our enemies, and I 
only regret I didn't have more time to loot 
from such despicable wretches, instead of 
leaving so much to others, including not a 
few loot critics. If, however, those from 
whom r have looted want their things back, 
let them meet me face to face and I will 
'take the matter into consideration.' " 

This frank and jaunty avowal caused 
considerable embarrassment to the defend- 
ers of the other missionaries accused of 
similar practices. The theory that there 
was no looting by the missionaries received 
a set-back from the pen of the Rev. Gilbert 
Reid. His article in the Forum is a little 
less frank, but just as jaunty and just as 
damaging. This is ' a specimen of his 
revised moral philosophy: 

"I venture to expound the ethics of loot. 
Loot means spoils of war. If there has 
been no war, looting may be set down as 
wrong. If wrong there has been, it has 
been in making war, whether by the Chi- 
nese Imperial Government or by the com- 
bined troops of Europe, America and Asia, 
and not in the incidental result of the col- 
lection of spoils." 

A little further on the Rev. Gilbert Reid 

"To confiscate the property of those who 
were enemies in war may be theoretically 
wrong, but precedent establishes the 

And in conclusion: 

"For those who have known the facts 
and have passed through a war of awful 



memory, the matter of loot is only one of 
high ethics." 

There seems to be here a moral obtuse- 
ness strangely out of place in the vocation 
which the Rev. Gilbert Reid professes. His 
code is somewhat different from that of 
other apostles of Christ. If it is to prevail 
in the further efforts of Christian civiliza- 
tion to evangelize the heathen world and 
to carry true and pure religion to the 
benighted, both the Eighth Command- 
ment and the Sermon on the Mount will 
have to be revised, about like this: 

Thou Shalt not steal, unless somebody 
else has done wrong by waging war. After 
military operations the Eighth Command- 
ment is susi)ended, even in the case of non- 
combatant Christian missionaries. 

As ye would that men should do to you, 
do ye also to them likewise; that is, unless 
you can put the others, technically, into 
the class of "enemies." Then you may 
do to your enemies as you would not have 
them to do to you. 

We fear that the apologists of the Rev. 
Dr. Ament will not welcome the Rev. Gil- 
bert Reid and his ethics. 

Before discussing this phase of the 
subject, let me remind Brother Carlton 
Harris that the conduct of the mission- 
aries was considered so disgraceful, and 
such a baleful reflection upon ''the 
cause," that The Southern Baptist Con- 
vention, at New Orleans, unanimously 
adopted resolutions condemning as 
'•unscriptural" the procedure of those 

The action of the Association was 
taken at the instance of Mr. E. L. Wes- 
son, of Mississippi. 

Commenting upon the isolated action 
of this Christian body, the Washington 
Post said: 

"Here we find the first really important 
and representative church declaration of 
adhesion to the teachings of Christ as 
applied to the situation in China. It takes 
us back to the brief but splendid episode 
of the lowly Nazarene; His pleas for mercyf 
love, forgiveness; His denunciation of 
cruelty and persecution; His noble creed of 
charity. He bade his disciples go forth 
Into the world; but He admonished them 
to put no script in their purses, to eschew 
violence and vengeance, to invoke peace 
upon every dwelling they entered. In no 
recorded utterances of Jesus can there be 
found the slightest justification for the 
sword, the torch, the reckoning of blood 
and spoliation. ]\Ir. Watson's resolution 
embodies the principles and injunctions of 
the Prince of Peace." 

It is not too much to say that all 
Christendom was shocked by the 
utterly un-Christian behavior of the 
missionaries. \W\y correspondents, 
travellers, resident consuls, soldiers on 
dut}^, sailors in the port — they, one and 
all "wrote scatliiug denunciations of the 
greed, the selfishness, the cruelty, the 
shamelessness of these missionaries. 

Yet they were the very men and 
women who had been sending us those 
glorious reports about the glorious 
work which these glorious people had 
been doing, as soul-savers, in China ! 
They were the very men and women 
whose letters in Miaisonary Tidings, 
TJie Wesley an Christian Advocate, The 
Chinstian Index, and similar publica- 
tions had caused our church-goers to 
neglect their own flesh and blood, in 
order that Chinese might be "saved." 

Professing to be working in a spirit 
of "deep consecration to God," they 
were assiduously laying up treasures 
on earth, and were ready, when the 
opportunity came, to rob the living and 
the dead, after which they would pre- 
sent to Congress such a claim for lost 
jewelry, etc., that the corridors of the 
capitol re-echoed Avith jeers and jests 
and ribald inockeiy of these conse- 
crated men and women. 

After such an exhibition of them- 
selves—an exhibition which the whole 
world saw, and either deplored or 
exulted over, is it not a marvel that the 
missionaries could maintain and extend 
their system? 

But sj'stems, once established, are 
hard to overthrow, no matter how rot- 
ten. We see that in police graft, in 
White Slave abominations, in the per- 
sistence of the 23olitical machine, in the 
survival of diplomatic establishments, 
in lotter}' systems, in Buddhism, in 
Mohammedanism, in Confucianism, in 

The business of Foreign Missions is 
systematized, and it will continue to 
exist a short while longer. The Boards 
get their salaries, the Secretaries and 



the Clerks are well paid, the editors of 
their misionary papers make a living 
out of it, the missionary book and 
pamphlet pays the writer and the prin- 
ter, the local preacher is a cog in the 
wheel — and so the machine works. The 
local preacher who has to sing for the 
money, pray for the money, preach 
for the money, beg for the money, and 
remit the monej^, is the cart-horse of 
the whole system. 

As yet, he does not see it. 

As yet, he does not realize how 
cruelly he is imposed on by the Board, 
the Editor, the Secretary, and the Mis- 

As yet, he is eager to work himself 
and his wife to death, wear shabby 
clothes and eat as "lightly" as Kocke- 
feller recomends, in order that such 
missionaries as Dr. T. W. Ayers may 
dwell in a fine house, fare sumptously 
every day, and keep "at least three 
household servants" to relieve Ayers' 
wife of domestic drudgery. 

As yet, the local preacher and his 
wife are the cheerful slaves of the 
pampered, self-indulgent, and never- 
satisfied foreign missionary. But it 
will not always be so. Some day, not 
distant, the local preacher will open his 
eyes, and see things as they are, and 
then missionary work in heathen lands 
will come back to the Gospel methods 
which our churches practised for more 
than 1,700 years after Christ. 

All this high-falutin, giltedged, pre- 
mium-paying jackassery started with 
a cranky Englishman, named William 
Carey; and it has lamentably lowered 
the morale of Christian endeavor, has 
educated the heathen to expect earthly 
reward for professing Christ, has filled 
the churches with subsidized converts, 
and has transformed missions from a 
Chinstiariising agency, into a mere civi- 
lizing propaganda. 

Instead of laboring for the salva- 
tion of souls, as Paul and Timothy and 
Peter and Barnabas did, our mission- 
aries are lavishing mission funds in 

teaching the heathen how to set type, 
how to run printing presses, how to 
operate a dairy-farm^ how to do car- 
IxMitering and black-smithing, how to 
grow cotton, and how to put a town in 
a sanitary condition. 

As a step toward converting the 
heathen soul, we first plug his teeth — 
upon the idea, I suppose, of giving 
him a foretaste of hell. 

We lay our approaches to his 
benighted spirit by curing his body, 
making him a gift of physic, of medical 
skill, of expert nursing and of what- 
ever surgical operation is necessary. 

I am told that the missionaries do 
all this in imitation of Christ. 

Tl'Ay, then^ are not our own desti- 
tute and unconverted sick given the 
henefit of some of this imitation of the 

If that policy were inaugurated, 
here at home^ w^ould our SIXTY MIL- 
drawn to Christ? 

Is it not a frightful thing to con- 
temjjlate — this Christian nation that 
has only one-third of its own people 
accepting the Savior, and yet going 
crazy about Korea, China and Japan? 

AVhy it is that the Foreign Mission- 
ary doesn't care a buiton about the 
60,000,000 heathen in America? Or 
about the millions of unconverted Chi- 
nese who are in America? Or about 
the heathen Japs and Hindoos, who 
are here? Or about the papists who 
are undermining our institutions, and 
suirplanting our churches^ in these 
United States? 

AVoe unto that people who are blind 
to what is happening in their own 
midst ! 

Woe unto a Faith which neglects its 
own household, and "consecrates" its 
mightiest efforts upon the Stranger in 
the Strange land. 

No such monstrous perversion of 
natural feelings and interests can be 
found in the Bible. It is not there. 
Only in the literature of the Boards, 



and of these missionary corporations 
will you find any such ruinous doc- 


Let us examine some of the testi- 
monials in favor of the results of For- 
eign Missionary work. The Missionary 
Voice quotes as follows: 

Sir William Ramsay declares that the 
American missionaries have constituted 
the only good influence that has worked 
from abroad on the Turkish Empire. It 
was they who introduced the first sewing 
machine, the first printing press, the first 
modern agricultural implements, built the 
first hospitals, the first modern schools, 
the first dispensary, who brought thither 
the tomato, the potato, and other fruits 
and vegetables, and first gave the various 
people of Turkey, Christian as well as 
Moslem, the Bible in each of their lang- 

Is that the best foot they can put 
forward ? Is that the best they can say 
for themselves? 

I close my eyes, and call up the old 
familiar scene in the church. It's the 
day for the Misionary Sermon. Rev. 
Jeremiah Packhorse has prepared him- 
self for the ordeal. His face wears a 
look of stern resolution. All of us feel 
that we are going to have the perishing 
heathen laid heavily upon us. We 
groan in spirit: we know what's com- 
ing, but don't know how to escape. 
Brother Jeremiah selects an appropri- 
ate hymn — in fact, the book flies open 
at the place. The book is used to it. 

We sing the hymn, dolorously, from 
a sense of duty: it is a necessary pre- 
lude to the painful operation that is to 

Brother Jeremiah prays, and the 
perishing heathen is the burden of his 
invocation. With importunate earnest- 
ness, he spreads the heathen before the 
throne of grace. 

Then, a solemn hush falls upon us 
as we straighten up, get our old bones 
in line again, and prepare to hear our- 
selves scorchingly indicted for our sin- 
ful neglect of those dying heathen. 

The collection follows; and we rue- 

fully surrender the cash contents of 
our pockets, or we droj) our due bills 
into the basket. 

What has been the burden of song 
and prayer and sermon'^ 

Why are we asked to give money to 
missions ? 

To save heathen souls, of course. 

And, j'et, the very witness that they 
put up doesn't say that any souls have 
been saved ! 

The witness. Sir William Ramsay, 
testifies that our missionaries were the 
first to introduce among the Turks 
the sewing machine^ the printing press^ 
the improved farm implements^ THE 

Heavens above ! Did the Rev. Jere- 
miah Packhorse know that he sang and 
prayed and preached for that? Did 
he know they were gomg to use the 
missionary collection in the purchase 
of a sewing machine for the dying 

Would the American congregations 
have given their money, if it had been 
explained that the purpose was to 
introduce yams and rutabaggas among 
the perishing folloAvers of Mahomet? 

Are we to get at the soul of the Turk 
by revealing to him the wonders of our 
cultivators, mowers and reapers? 

It is not honest to the American 
congregation to preach the mis- 
sions of Christianity^ and then use the 
money to introduce into heathen lands 
the agricultural and mechanical 
methods of Occidental Commercialism. 
Are we financing evangelical Christi- 
anity? Or are we financing a sordid, 
dollar-mark civilization ? 

Brother Carlton Harris himself 
introduces a few testimonials which 
have been often used by others. 

In favor of the work of the Foreign 
missionaries, he quotes Prof. Louis 
Agassiz, who deposes and says that 
Science is greatly indebted to them for 
their "observation of facts and collect- 
ing specimens." 



It seems to me that Brother Harris 
might "excuse the witness" in this 
instance. If our home-churches are 
financing foreign missions in aid of 
Science, and to assist the scientific in 
their researches into the physical 
world, the sooner we stop it. the bet- 
ter. If the foreign missionary spends 
his time observing natural phenomena, 
and in collecting rare bugs, beetles, 
moths, minerals, mosses, flora and 
fauna. u\ho is to snatch heathen brands 
from the burning? 

This reminds me that there has been 
recently issued from the press of The 
Xeale Publisliing Company, a book 
written by a foreign missionary, the 
most interesting portion of which is 
his account of his hunting big game — 
such as elephants, tigers and gorillas. 
Great sport for a soul-saver, wasn't 

I notice that Brother Harris quotes 
Charles Darwin as one of his witnesses. 
Evidently, Mr. Harris means to vouch 
for his icitness, as per rule in such 
cases. Does Mr. Harris present Dar- 
win as a credible witness? Does Mr. 
Harris acept Darwin's evidence as to 
the evolution of the human race ? 

If Mr. Harris does not believe Dar- 
win on Evolution, why should he ask 
1/ou to believe Darwin on Foreign Mis- 
sionaries ? 

IVhat does Darwin say? 

"The success of the mission in Terra Del 
Fuego is most wonderful, and charms me, 
as I always prophesied utter failure. 1 
could not believe that all the missionaries 
in the world could have made the Fuegians 
honest. The mission is a grand success." 

The missionaries "made the Fue- 
gians honest.-' AYas that what the mis- 
sionaries meant to do? What had the 
Fuegians been stealing before the 
missionaries got there? There isn't 
very much to purloin, in Terra 
del Fuego: maybe the stealing 
had all been finished before Dar- 
win rolled in upon the scene. Or, 
perhaps, the missionaries had picked 

the Fuegians so clean that there was 
nothing left for the untutored natives 
to appropriate. That was almost the 
way of it in the HaAvaian Islands, in 
the Fiji Islands and in the Philip- 
pines. In the Sandwich group, the 
Protestant missionaries exploited the 
natives, and became owners of the best 
sugar plantations. In the Philippines, 
the Romanist missionaries did the same 
thing. At this very time (1913) the 
cream of Hawaian wealth belongs to 
the descendants of the missionaries. 
At this very time, the Philippines are 
under mortgage for the huge sum of 
money ($7,000,000) which Messrs. 
Taft and Roosevelt had to pay to 
redeem the lands of which Romanist 
missionaries had robbed the natives. 

Wherever the latter-day foreign 
missionary plants his foot, the natives 
begin to lose property. 

We hear the cry, '^Trade follows the 

So it does; and the missionary very 
often is "in on" the trade. 

Brother Harris introduces, anony- 
mously the "Editor of a Japanese daily 
paper," as a witness. To introduce any 
editor of any daily paper as a credible 
witness, on any earthly subject, is a 
bold venture, verging upon reckless 
temerity. To introduce the Editor of 
a Japanese daily paper, is sheer rash- 
ness, provocative of righteous wrath. 
But when such a witness is offered 
anonijmously, we almost feel aggrieved 
and mocked. 

Let me clip from Bro. Harris: 

Editor of a Japanese daily paper: "Look 
over Japan, our 40,000,000 have a higher 
standard of morality than they have ever 
known. There is not a boy or girl through- 
out the empire that has not heard of the 
one-man-one-woman doctrine; our ideas of 
loyalty and obedience are higher than ever, 
and when we inquire the cause of this 
great moral advance, we can find it in 
nothing else than the religion of Jesus." 

Pages of such testimony could be added. 

I believe it. But I'd like to know 
how much it costs, per page. Before 



ordering "pages" of that sort of rot, 1 
would request a private interview with 
Dr. Arthur Judson Brown. 

With extraordinary forgetfulness, 
Brother Haris quotes the nameless Jap 
editor and Dr. Brown in the same arti- 
cle. (See Southern Methodist, Feb. 13. 

Dr. Brown testifies: " 

"Most Asiatics have no sense of wrong 
regarding many of the matters that we 
have been taught to regard as evil. They 
are untruthful and immoral. The first 
chapter of the Epistles to the Romans is 
still a literal description of heathendom. 
Its society is utterly -rotten, and nowhere 
else in all Asia is it more licentious than in 
Japan, which is lauded as the most intel- 
ligent and advanced of all Asiatic nations." 

The unnamed Jap editor asserts that 
there is not a hoy or girl among the 
40,000,000 who has not heard of the 
Christian standards, and "when we 
inquire the cause of this great moral 
advance, etc." 

If this Jap editor tells the truth, the 
Gospel has already done its work in 

Japan, and the missionaries ought to 
pack up and move on. If every boy 
and girl of the Japanese empire has 
heard the Gospel, the parents, also, 
heard it : why then, should the mis- 
sionaries tarry there? 

But if Dr. Brown is telling the truth, 
the Japs are yet wallowing in moral 
mire, and we must contmue to finance 
the missionaries another hundred years. 
If Japanese society remains "utterly 
rotten," as Dr. Brown alleges, after 
our misionaries have labored there so 
man}^ generations, we might as well 
prepare to camp right there until 
Gabriel's horn calls us in. 

If Brother Harris *really means to 
do me any good by his urbane discus- 
sion of my book, I must beseech him 
to privately examine his witnesses 
before he puts them up. "When they 
contradict one another, they leave me 
as badly confused as the old Justice of 
the Peace who never could decide a 
case to his own satisfaction^ if both 
sides insisted on being heard. 

Open Letters to Cardinal Gibbons 

No. 11 

My Dear Prince of the Blood: 

IF you are so vehemently opposed to 
the freedom of the Philippine 
Islanders, why were you dumb 
when the Democratic Convention at 
Baltimore was proposing to ask votes 
for its National candidates upon the 
ground that the Democratic Party 
favored the Independence of those 
unfortunate people? 

"Why were you silent during the cam- 
paign which resulted in Democratic 
success ? 

You waited until the Democrats had 
triumphed, and then you virtually 
warned them not to honor their own 
campaign pledges. 

Is that honorable, my Prince? 

Is there, in fact, any such word as 
Honor in the lexicon of the political 
organization which you are pleased to 
call your "Church?" 

In your declaration against the 
Filipinos, you are too shrewd to 
express j-our real sentiments. You are 
cunning enough to pretend to believe 
that those cruelly maltreated jDCople 
should have the right to govern them- 
selves in their own way, some time in 
the future. 

You are too cunning to tell the 
American people that your papal 
machine never grants liberty, of its 
own accord. You dare not confess that 
you intend to always oppose Philij)- 
pine independence. Yet, that is exactly 
Avhere you stand. Cardinal. You mean 
to have this Kepublic do, permanenthj, 
Avhat the Spanish monarchy did for 
you several hundred years. Just as 
Spain held the Islands down, while 
Rome robbed them, 3'ou intend that 
this Republic shall continue to do 
what it is now doing — hold the Filipi- 
nos down while monks and friars des- 

poil them of their lands, their labor, 
their women, and their liberty. 

For upAvards of 400 years, your 
"church" had been dominant in those 
afflicted Islands. Popes, • priests, 
monks, and friars had been supreme. 
Church and State belonged to Rome. 
With what result? 

The same old result that cursed 
France, England, Ireland. Spain ,Por- 
tugal, Italy, Mexico, Cuba, South and 
Central America. WJierever Rome is 
supreme, HELL moves in, and stays! 

If we wish to know the horrors of 
Rome-rule in England, we study the 
standard histories which reveal it — 
reading by the light of the fires that 
burned the patriot, the Christian the 
Martyr, We read it in the ghastly 
annals of the reign of Bloody Mary; 
the diabolism of the Monasteries as 
exposed by Henry VIII. ; the Excom- 
munication which anathematized, with 
Rome's devilish curse, the Great Char- 
ter of our liberties; the satanic intoler- 
ance and atrocity which sent men and 
women to horrible torture and death 
because they could not believe that a 
dozen Latin words, mumbled by a 
dirty, lousy, ignorant priest could 
change wheat bread into the bodv of 

As to France, Spain. Portugal, 
Italy — the records are complete, fami- 
liar, damning. In vain, Cardiiuil, will 
your satellites forge, erase, mutilate 
and otherwise falsify those historical 
records: they are there — complete, 
familiar, damning. 

In the Philipi:)ine Islands, it was the 
Commission appointed by this U. S. 
(iovernment which conducted the 
examination, heard the witnesses under 
oath, took down the testimony, and 
reported it to our Congress. 

William Howard Taft was Presi- 



dent of the investigating Commission. 
It was he who sent the official Report 
to our President, William McKinley. 
(The Report is known as Senate docu- 
ment No. 190; 2d sesion, 5Gth Con- 

Cardinal, that terrible Report has 
been noticed in books, in pamphlets, 
in ncAvspapers, and in speeches; but it 
has nev^ been contradicted by oral, or 
written testimony. 

Not a single Romanist friar, bishop, 
arch-bishop, or lay officer has ever 
testified that the witnesses who made 
out the frightful case against Rome, 
swore falsely. The Romanists in the 
Islands had every opportunity to rebut 
the evidence, and the most powerful 
motives to do so; but not one availed 
himself of the privilege. 

In the face of that arraignment, the 
Romanists were mute! 

To understand fully what that 
arraignment was, we must read the 
official record of the evidence. I have 
therefore selected such portions of this 
uncontradictdble testimony as will give 
a fair conception of what Roman 
Catholicism, during centuries of con- 
trol, had done for this people. 


Testimony of Senor Don Felipe Calderon. 

(This gentleman testified that he was 
born in the Philippine Islands and had 
lived there the thirty years of his life, less 
a period of eight months when he made a 
few trips to the British possessions. Prac- 
tically all of this time had been spent in 
the city of Manila, where, as he states, 
"The friar is intimately connected with all 
the social, political and other life.") 

Question by Taft Ck)mmission : Now, as 
to the morality of the friars, have you had 
much opportunity to observe as to this? 

A. Considerable. From my earliest 
youth. With respect to their morality in 
general, it was such a common thing to see 
children of friars that no one ever paid 
any attention to it or thought of it, and so 
depraved had the people become in this 
regard that the women who were the mis- 
tresses of friars really felt great pride in it 
and had no compunction in speakin(g of it. 
So general had this thing become that it 
may be said that even now the rule is 
for a friar to have a mistress and children, 
and he who has not is the rare exception, 

and if it is desired that I give names I 
could cite right now 100 children of friars. 

Q. In Manila or in the provinces? 

A. In Manila and in the provinces. 

Q. Are the friars living in the islands 
still who have had those children? 

A. Yes, and I can give their names if 
necessary, and I can give the names of the 
children, too. Beginning with myself, my 
mother is the daughter of a Franciscan 
friar. I do not dishonor myself by saying 
this, because my family begins with myself. 

Q. I will be much obliged for a list. 

(Witness here produced long list of such 

Q. It was not a general licentiousness 
on the part of the friars? 

A. It was a general licentiousness, 
because, as I have said, the exception as to 
the rule among the friars was not to have 
a mistress and be the father of children by 
her. The friar who Avas not mixed up \v\t\\ 
a woman in some way or other was like a 
snowbird in summer. 

Q. That would seem to indicate that the 
immorality of the friars is not the chief 
ground of the hostility of the people 
against them, would it not? 

A. That is not, by any means, because 
the moral sense of the whole people here 
has been absolutely perverted. So frequent 
were these infractions of the moral laws 
on the part of the friars that really no one 
ever cared or took any notice of them; and 
this acquiescence on the part of the people 
was imposed upon them; for woe be unto 
him who should ever murmur anytliing 
against the friars, and even the young Fil- 
ipino Avomen had their senses perverted, 
because when attending school they had 
often and often seen the friars come in to 
speak to their openly avowed daughters, 
who often were their own playmates. — 
Pages 139-140. 


Testimony of Jose Rederigues Infante. 

(This witness is a licentiate of law, 
though not practicing the profession, who 
has lived all his life in the islands, being 
educated at the University of Santo 
Thomas. At the time the following ques- 
tions were asked he gave his age as 36. 
With reference to the taking of statistics 
for the Spanish government by the friars, 
the following was asked:) 

Question by Taft Commission. So, to 
swell the taxes, they robbed the cradle and 
the grave? 

A. They augmented the cradle, but 
diminished the grave. The friars had a 
system of blackmail, by which they held 
the rod over all the citizens of a pueblo, 
about whose habits and closet skeletons 
they learned through making little girls of 
from 5 to 6 and 7 years of age, who could 
barely speak and who were naturally and 



must have been sinless, come to the con- 
fessional and relate to them everything 
that they knew of the private life in the.r 
own homes and in places that they might 
visit. — Page 146. 

* * * * * 

Q. What do you know about the mor- 
ality or immorality of the friars? 

A. Too much. J- have nothing to add 
to what Senor Calderon says, save to cite 
some more names. 

Q. Have you known a good many young 
women and young men who were the 
reputed daughters and sons of friars? 

A. I have known a great many and now 
have living on my estate six children of a 

Q. Were all the friars (priests) licen- 

A. I believe that they all are. 

Q. Do you think that was the ground 
of hostility against the friars? 

A. No, sir: Caesarism was. Everything 
was dependent upon them, and 1 may say 
that even the process of eating was under 
their supervision. Naturally, their imnior 
ality had a slight influence in the case, but 
it became so common that it passed unno> 
ticed. — Pages 146-147 


Q. Charges have been made against the 
friars that they caused deportations of Fil- 
ipinos. Do you know of such instances? 

A. In my own province it was seen that 
the large majority of the friars, and more 
especially the now deceased friar, Antonio 
Brabo, had great influence in the deporta- 
tion of many influential citizens, as also in 
the incarceration of several of them in 
order to subsequently have them released 
so as to show their power with the authori- 

Q. It is charged, also, that they were 
guilty of physical cruelty to their own 
members and others. What do you know 
about it? 

A. They were cruel, not only in their 
treatment of their servants by beating 
them, but they also took great delight in 
being eye witness to tortures and beatings 
of men in prisons and jails by the civil 
authorities. They were always, when wit- 
nessing these acts, accompanied by some 
of the higher Spanish civil authorities, and 
these acts were usually carried out at the 
instigation of the friars. — Page 147-148. 
* * * ' * * 

Testimony of Senor Nozario Constantino. 

(Witness was born in the islands, had 
reached the age of 58, and had lived in 
Manila since beginning the practice of law, 
though he made frequent trips back to the 
vicinity of Bigan, where he was born, hav- 
ing interests and lands in Bulacan.) 

Question by Taft Commission: What 
political functions did the friars discharge 
before 1896 in the villages in which they 
were parish priests? 

A. The political functions that they 
exercised were those of ruling the entire 
country, every authority and everybody 
having to be subservient to their caprice. 
Q. Do you know what were the relations 
between the heads of the Spanish govern- 
ment and the heads of the church here? 


Q. What was the morality of the friars? 
A. There was no morality whatever, 
and the story of the immorality would take 
too long to recount. Great immorality 
and corruption. (I desire to say here that, 
speaing thus frankly about the habits of 
the priests, the witnesses would fear that 
they might be persecuted by the priests if 
it should ever get out what they were say- 
ing here.) 

Judge William Howard Taft: I DON'T 

Q. Have you known of the children of 
friars being about in Bulacan? 

A. Yes, sir. About the year 1840 and 
the year 1850 every friar curate in the 
province of Bulacan had his concubine. Dr. 
Joaquin Gonzales was the son of a curate 
of Baliuag, and he has three sisters here 
and another brother, all children of the 
same friar. We do not look upon that as a 
discredit to a man. The multitude of fri- 
ars who came here from 1876 to 1896 and 
1898 were all of the same kind, and to 
name the number of children that they 
have would take up an immense lot of 
space.* * * 

Q. Did not the people become so accus- 
tomed to the relations which the friars 
had with the women that it really played 
very little part in their hostility to the 
friars, assuming that the hostility did 

A. That contributed somewhat to the 
hostility of the people, and they carried 
things in this regard with a very high 
hand, for if they should desLre the ^vLfe or 
daughter of a man, and the husband and 
father opposed such advances, they would 
endeavor to have the man deported by 
bringing up false charges of being a fili- 
buster or a Mason, and after succeeding 
in getting rid of the husband, they would, 
by foul or fair means, accomplish their 
purposes, and I will cite a case that actu- 
ally happened to us. It was the case of a 
first cousin of mine. Dona Soponce, who 
married a girl from Baliuag and went to 
live in Agonoy, and there the local friar 
curate, who was pursuing his wife, got 
him the position as registrar of the church 



in order to have him occupied in order 
that he might continue his advances with 
the wife. He was fortunate in this under- 
taking and succeeded in getting the wife 
away from the husband and afterwards 
had the husband deported to Puerto Prin- 
cessa, near Jolo, where he was shot as an 
insurgent, and the friar continued to live 
with the widow and she bore him children. 
The friar's name is Jose Martin, an Augus- 
tinian friar. 

Q. I want to ask you whether the hos- 
tility against the friars is cgnfined to the 
educated and the better element among the 

A. It permeates all classes of society, 
and principally the lower, for they can do 
nothing. The upper class, by reason of 
their education, can stand them off better 
than the lower classes, and this is the 
reason tliat the friars don't want the pub- 
lic to become educate<l. — Pages 150-151. 


Testimony of Dr. Maximo Viola. 

(Dr. Maximo Viola was born in the Phil- 
ippines and practiced medicine in the prov- 
ince of Bulacan, where he lived practically 
all his life with the exception of a trifle 
over four years, which time was spent in 
Spain, France, Germany and Austria com- 
pleting his education. 

Question by Taft Commission. What 
political functions did the friars actually 
exercise in your parish? 

A. They exercised all functions. They 
were the lieutenants of the civil guard, the 
captain of the pueblo, the governor of the 
province. To show this, the friar would 
always watch the elections, and if any 
provincial governor or any municipal 
authority were elected by the people w'hom 
he did not desire to hold office, he would 
for subordinate officers appeal to the pro- 
vincial governor and for these governors 
to the governor-general, and state that ii 
these officers who had been elected were 
permitted to assume their offices that the 
public order would be endangered, because 
they were IMasons, or any other specious 
argument would be advanced so as to make 
the superior authorities set at naught the 
will of the people and appoint whoever 
might be thought suitable or friendly to 
the friar, but often this was not necessary, 
as the friar would so wield the elections 
as to get only those to vote who were his 
blind followers. 

Q. What was the morality of the parish 

A. There was no morality. If I was to 
rehearse the whole history it would be 
interminable; but I shall confine myself to 
concrete cases, beginning with the vows of 
chastity, which everyone knows they have 
to take. Upon this point it were better to 
consult the children of friars in every town 
where there are at least four or five or 
more, who have cost their mothers more 

bitter tears for having brought them into 
the world, not only because of the dis- 
honor, but also because of the numerous 
deportations brought about by the friars 
to get rid of them. The vow of poverty 
is also loudly commented on by the fact 
that in every town, however poor it may 
be, the convent is the finest building, 
whereas in Europe or elsewhere the school 
house is the finest building. Willi regard 
to other little caprices of the friars, I 
niiKiit .say that wlienever a «ealtljy resi- 
dent of tlie to«ii is in his death throes the 
Filipino coadjutor of the friar is never 
permitted to yo to liis l>edside and con- 
fess him; tlie Spanish friar always goes, 
and there he paints to tlie i>enitent the tor- 
ments of lu'Il and tlie conse<iuences of an 
evil life, thus adding to the terrors of the 
deathbed. . He also states liis soul may be 
saved by donating either real or personal 
property to the church. If the patient 
dies, the family is compeljed to have a 
most e.vpensive funeral, with all the inci-. 
dental expenses, which go to the church, 
or be threatened with deportation or 
imprisonment; and if the dead person is 
a pauper and has naturally nothing to pay 
with, or if he is a servant or a tenant, the 
master or employer has to pay or he will 
be deported, as happened to my brother-in- 
law, Moses Santiago, who was a pharma- 
cist, and was deported in the month of 
November, 1895, because he did not pay 
the funeral expenses of the son of the 
female servant in his house. . The father 
of this child was a laborer and had funds 
sufficient to defray the burial expenses, 
and the friar was so informed by my 
brother-in-law, and they said they had 
nothing to do with that, and that he was 
liis master and would have to pay or suffer 
the consequences, which he did. 

I myself came very near being deported 
under the following circumstances: A 
woman heavy with child died in the fifth 
month of gestation. The friar curate 
demanded that I should perform the Caesa- 
rian operation upon the corpse, in order 
to baptize the foetus. I declined to 
perform the operation, because I had 
a wound in my finger and feared 
blood poisoning. He told me it was 
my duty to myself and to my con- 
science to perform the operation, in orde? 
that he might baptize the foetus, and I 
told him my conscience did not so impel 
me, and I declined to do it, and lie said, 
"Take care." Those two w'ords were suffi- 
cient to send me hurriedly to Manila, 
where I remained from 189 5, the year in 
which this occurred, to 1899. 

If the dying person is a pauper, 
with no one to pay fees, the Span- 
ish friar does not go to confess 
him, but sends the Filipino, and when 
he dies without burial fees his corpse is 
often allowed to rot, and there have been 
many cases where the sacristans of the 
church have been ordered by the friar to 



hang the corpse publicly, so that the rela- 
tives may be thus compelled to seek the 
fees somewhere sufficient to bury the 

Q. What piopoition of the friars do you 
think vi<>hite<l their vows of celibacy? 

A. 1 do not know of a single one of all 
those I !mve known in the province of IJul- 
acan who has not violated his vow of cel- 

Q. Does a hostility exist among the 
people against the friars? 

A. A great deal. If you were to ask 
the inhabitants of the Philippines, one by 
one. that question, they would all say the 
same — that they hated the friars, because 
there is scarcely a person living here who 
has not in one way or another suffered at 
their hands. 

Q. What is the chief ground of that 

A. The despotism and the immorality. 

Q. Had other causes than the immor- 
ality not existed, do you think the immor- 
ality was sufficient? 

A. Yes: that would be a sufficient cause, 
for the simple reason that the immorality 
brings as a natural consquence in its train 
despotism, intimidation and force to carry 
out their desires and designs; for all may 
be reduced to this, that the Filipino who 
did not bow his head in acquiescence had 
it cut off from his shoulders. 

Q. In other words, this was only a man- 
ifestation of the power they exercised over 
the people. That was one end toward 
which they used their power? 

A. Immorality was the chief end. — 
Pages 15 5-157. 


Testimony of Pedro Surano Laktaw. 

(This native was 47 years of age, had 
received his degree as teacher of elemen- 
tary schools in Manila, his degree of supe- 
rior teacher in Salamanca, Spain, and his 
degree as instructor of normal schools in 
Madrid. When asked in regard to his 
knowledge of the friars, he said: "I think 1 
am in a position to know more about them 
than any other Filipino, because through 
my position as teacher I was brought in 
constant contact with them.") 

Question by Taft Commission. W^hat 
political functions did the friars actually 
exercise in the pueblos? 

A. All without exception. Even those 
which the governor-general was not able 
to exercise. One of the most terrible arms 
that the friars wielded in the provinces 
was the secret investigation and report 
upon the private life and conduct of a per- 
son. For instance, if some one had made 
accusations against a resident of a pueblo 
and laid them before the governor-general, 
he would have private instructions sent to 
the curate of the town to investigate aud 
report upon the private life of that resi- 
dent, stating that he had been charged 

with conspiring against the Spanish sover- 
eignty. This resident was having his pri- 
vate life investigated without any notice to 
him whatever and in a secret way, and the 
report was always sent secretly to the gov- 
ernor-general, and he might be the inti- 
mate friend of the governor of the pro- 
vince or of the gobernadorcillo of the town, 
or of the commander of the civil guard in 
his town. He would render reports openly 
very favorable to him, but notwithstand- 
ing this the governor-general would 
receive the secret report of the friar and 
act upon it. For instance, there have been 
many cases in pueblos where a large num- 
ber of the inhabitants have attended a 
feast in honor of the birthday of the gov- 
ernor of the province and have partaken 
of his hospitality, being intimate friends 
of his, and three or four days later nearly 
all of them have been arrested and 
imprisoned, charged with being conspira- 
tors against the life of the governor and 
against the continuance of the Spanish 
sovereignty through secret information 
received from the friar curate. This is the 
secret of their great political influence in 
the country, for from the governor-general 
down to the lowest subordinate of the 
Spanish government they feared the influ- 
ence of the friar at home, which was very 
great, owing either to social position there 
or to power of money here, and I myself 
have seen several officers of high rank in 
the army and officials of prominence under 
the government sent back long before their 
times or service had expired at the instiga- 
tion of the friars. 

Q. What do you know as to the mor- 
tality of the friars? 

A. I have already related in my state- 
ment a few cases, and I would prefer to 
answer the questions by saying; that the 
details of the immorality of tlie friars are 
so base and so indecent that instead of 
smirching the friars I would smirch myself 
by relatinjj; them. 

' The witness closed his testimony before 
Mr. Taft, with this statement: "In a word it 
can be truthfully said that the morality of 
the Filipino people becomes looser and 
looser as it nears the neighborhood of the 
convent." (For further particulars see 
pages 163-165 — Senate document No. 190, 
56th Cong. 2d session.) 


Testimony of Ambrosia Flores. 

(This man had lived in the islands all 
his life, had been an officer in the Spanish 
army and later a general in the insurgent 
army, coming into contact with the friars 
in the discharge of military and civil 
duties. Note his answers in regard to their 

Question by Taft Commission. Do you 
know whether there are in these islands a 
great many descendants of the friars? 

A. Yes, sir. 



Q. Is that generally understood? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. Do you think the immorality was 
general or not — whether or not with a 
great many exceptions? 

A. Yes, there were exceptions, but they 
were very rare. 

Q. What was the ground of the hos- 
tility against the friars? 

A. The reasons for their hostility were 
many. In the first place, the haughty, 
overbearing, despotic manner of the friars. 
Then the questions of the haciendas, (large 
farms, referred to in Taft's Nashville 
speech) because the conditions of their 
tenantry were very terrible. Then tliere 
was the fact of the fear which beset every 
man, even those who through fear were 
nearest to tJie friars, that if his eyes should 
light upon his wife or daughter in an envi- 
ous way that if he did not give them up 
he was lost. Another reason was that they 
were inimical to educating the people. 
Then, again, because of the parish fees, 
because they were very excessive, always 
compelling the rich to have the greatest 
amount of ceremony in their weddings, 
baptisms and interments — whether they 
wanted it or not — and cost them thereby 
a good deal, and if they did not accede to 
the payment they would say they were 
Masons or filibusters. 

Q. Was the chief reason for the feeling 
of the people against the friars such as 
you have stated; that is, that they repre- 
sented to the people the oppressive power 
of the Spanish people? 

A. Yes, sir; exactly. 

Q. Do you think that if there were no 
other reason their great immorality would 
have made them unpopular? 

A. That would be sufficient for this 
reason: That the means which they used 
to carry out their purposes with respect 
to women were the most grievous and 
oppressive. If they had merely desired a 
woman and courted her, nothing would 
have been said, but if the woman declined 
to allow their advances they used every 
effort in their power to compel her and 
her relatives to succumb. — Pages 169-170. 

The testimony of Brigadier-General 
R. P. Hughes, U. S. A., is summed up 
in his final answer to a question : 

A. To be plain, Judge, there is no mor- 
ality in them ; not a particle. They gamble 
in their convents; they send for members 
of their congi-egation to gamble with them. 
There is no morality. — Pages 176-177. 

The gist of the evidence of the Attor- 
ney-General of the Island — Florentine 
Torres — may be seen in the following 
extract : 

The artlessness and deficient culture of 
a great part of the inhabitants of this 
archipelago are circumstances of which 
the friars have taken advantage, for, as is 
known, they take care to have it always 
believed that they can hurl excommuni- 
cations and command the terrible punish- 
ments of heaven, with the power to cast 
the disobedient into the uttermost depths 
of hell. 

* « * 4i * 

The social relations which the friars 
have mantained with the Filipinos are the 
most injurious, and opposed to culture and 
the moral and material progress of the 
latter. Ministers of a religion whose 
founder proclaimed charity to tlie limits 
of sacrifice and equality among men have 
preaclied the contrary, and sustained by 
their works the inequality and difference 
between races, impeding and ridiculing 
every notion or idea of dignity conceived 
by a t"ilii»ino. They have endeavored to 
keep the Filipinos in ignorance, opposing 
wherever they could bring their pressure 
to bear, the teaching of the Spanish lan- 
guage by primary school teachers. They 
liave condemned in their preachings and 
private conversations every desire for cul- 
ture and civilization, antagonizing the best 
purposes of the Madrid government or of 
that of these islands, as well in the faint 
and meager reforms in behalf of the prog- 
ress and education oi the Filipinos as in 
the economical measures which to a cer- 
tain extent affect the interests of the cor- 
porations, although they may redound to 
the great benefit of the people; and have 
arrogated to themselves the title of men- 
tors and directors of this society. Instead 
of teaching the Filipinos cultured social 
behavior becoming to civilized men, they 
educated and formed them morally witli 
that narrow character, little frank and dis- 
trustful, which is noticeable in the gener- 
ality of the people, especially in the more 
ignorant, making them stubborn and sus- 
picious of intercourse and relations with 

They have devoted themselves to keep- 
ing this society in ignorance, as though it 
lived in the middle ages or in the medie- 
val epoch of remote centuries. 

Lastly, as priests and curates, the 
majority of them were living examples ot 
immorality, or disorder in the towns, and 
of disobedience and resistence to the con- 
stituted powers and the authorities, 
encouraged by the impunity guaranteed in 
the anachronistic ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion, by the weakness of the governors and 
officials vitiated with fetichism and hypoc- 
risy, and by the irresistible omnipotence of 
each monarchal corporation, possessing 
immense wealth. 

The curate friars were agents and rep- 
resentatives of a powerful theocratic 
feudalism, which has been ruling this 
country for many centuries back without 



any sign of responsibility of any kind 
through civil and military officials 
appointed by the Spanish government with 
the more or less direct intervention of the 
commissary friars residing in the capital 
of Spain. 

• « « * « 

Question by Taft Commission: What 
was the morality of the friars as parish 
priests, etc.? 

A. The morality of the friars generally 
left much to be desired: it was a cause for 
scandal among their parishoners — the way 
in which they broke their vows of chastity 
and poverty. This free life of the friars 
was so notorious that nothing was hidden 
from their parishoners, who had every- 
thing before their eyes on all occasions. 
We shall cite some cases: They compelled 
all the spinsters to go up to the convent 
on Sundays and feast days, and there they 
exhorted them i-egarding matters which 
were not advisable, and, not satisfied with 
tMs, they advised them to confess fre- 
quently, and they relied ui>on this means 
to profane the house of God; and, if they 
did not secure their disordered ends, they 
sought means, even though it were 
calumny, to secure the deportation of the 
fathers of families, and if the women were 
married their husbands, as happened to a 
former captain, Don Miguel Bevollo, and 
others. To show how far their astute- 
ness went, there still exists in the con- 
vent of this pueblo two secret stairways, 
the door being in the form of a wardrobe, 
which, when opened, formed means of 
escape — one communicating with the vault 
and leading from the choir of the church, 
to the sacristy, and the other in the sleep- 
ing room of the curate, which led to a 
storehouse which is now used as the office 
of the local presidente. This was the idea 
of a friar to carry out his impure and dis- 
ordered passions . It can be said that 
there were two cm-ates of this pueblo who 
were so cruel and inhuman that even with- 
out any reason they verbally ill-treated 
whoever had the misfortune to liave any 
thing to do with them, not to say any- 
thing of their servants, sacristans and 
singers, without respecting the sanctity of 
the place and of religious functions; 
wherefor, by reason of our consciences as 
good Catholics, we cannot but protest 
under pain of threatening the demorali- 
zation and corruption of our holy religion. 
They abused all kinds of females \vithout 
distinction of class or age, and when some 
of them became witli child they gave them 
medicine to kill the foetus. — Page 200. 


The friar curates, usurping the attri- 
butes of the local authorities, not only 
intervened but exercised joint action with 
the said authorities in the three branches, 
administrative, judicial and enconomical. 
The justice of the peace who should have 

dared to disobey the curate friar was cer- 
tain to land in jail within a few days if 
he were not deported, to which end the 
reverend friars always had on hand, like 
a panacea against them, the accusation of 
being a filibuster and anti-Spanish. The 
heads of the Spanish government, to the 
detriment of their dignity, became servile 
tools, because they knew that the friar's, 
with the powerful lever of their money 
treasured up in the convents of Manila, 
were above the law; therefore, more pow- 
erful than the very governor-general of 
the islands. 

— Testimony of Francisco Alvarez, ex- 
clerk of court of ex-councillor of justice, 
before Taft Commission, Senate document 
Xo. 190, 56th Congress, 2d session, p. 2.58. 


The parish friar placed in the position 
already described by the undersigned 
regarding his parish converted himself up 
to a certain point, into an absolute lord, 
master of lives and property, and, if so 
willed, he made and unmade everything 
according to his fancy. Master of the 
will of the people, more through fear than 
out of love for him, he nominated town 
authorities who pleased him, which nomi- 
nation resulted almost always in the great- 
est flatterer of all his parishoners, and it 
is plain that all weighty determinations 
dictated by the municipal authorities were 
not proper initiatives but those of his 

— Testimony of J. C. Mijares, before 
Taft Comission, Senate document No. 190, 
oGth Congress, 2d sesion, p. 2.54. 


I do not knov/ whether this (high fees) 
may have been the cause in some cases for 
reluctance to contract ecclesiastical matri- 
mony, although in my judgment what 
mostly influenced this reluctance is that 
some reverend friars had arrogated to 
themselves rights which in fuedal times 
were called rights of "pernada." (The 
right asserted by certain fuedal lords to 
enter the marriage bed of a newly-wedded 
bride before the husband.) Far from my 
mind is the idea of injuring or slandering, 
for I can site specific and concrete facts, 
with the names and descriptions of the 
parties interested, should I be compelled 

— Testimony of Don Jose C. Mijares, 
resident of Bacolod, before Taft Commis- 
sion, Senate document No. 190, 56th Con- 
gress, 2d session, p. 254. 


The dectective work of the friar curates 
and their false accusations and slanders 
sent many and an innumerable number 
of the peacefully inclined to the revolu- 



tionary ranks, because between the horri- 
ble punishments and outrages which pro- 
duced death slowly and death in the open 
field, many preferred the latter. The 
greater part of the well-to-do and cultured 
people of the provinces and many from 
this capital embraced the cause of the 
rebellion, forced thereto by the persecu- 
tions and false accusations made by many 
.iingoistic Spanish patriots and the friars, 
rather than of their own notion, and also 
because of the outrages, ferocious punish- 
ments, and most severe penalties imposed 
on persons that the peonle believed to be 
Innocent. (P. 187). The curate friars 
were agents and representatives of a pow- 
erful theocratic feudalism, which has been 
ruling this country for many centuries 
back without any sign of responsibility of 
any kind through civil and military offi- 
cials appointed by the Spanish government 
with the more or less direct intervention 
of the commissary friars residing in the 
capital of Spain. 

— Testimony of Florentino Torres, 
attorney general of the Philinpines under 
military government of the TT. S.. before 
Taft Commision. Senate document No. 100. 
56th Congress, 2d sesion, p. 181-187. 


If they should desire the wife or daugh- 
ter of a man, and the husband and father 
opposed such advances. they would 
endeavor to have the man deported bv 
bringing up false charges of being a fili- 
buster or a Mason, and after succeeding 
in getting rid of the husband, they would, 
by foul or fair means, accomplish their 
purposes, and I will cite a case that actu- 
ally happened to us. 

— Witness Senor Constantino, before 
Taft Comission, Senate document No. 190, 
56th Congress, 2d sesion, pp. 150-151. 


Q. How did the friar rob them? 

A. He robbed them in the vicinity of 

the railroads by forcing the people to 
sell their rice to him at the prices which 
the friar made, and not allowing the peo- 
ple to send their own products to the 

— Testimony of H. P. Whitemarsh, 
American correspondent Century Maga- 
zine, and other periodicals, before Taft 
Commission, Senate document No. 190, 
5 6th Congress, 2d session. 


Q. What grounds did they give for 
their hostility? 

A. Mainly that the priests held them 
under, oppressed them, robbed them, an i 
that they used their women and daugh- 
ters just as they pleased. 

— Testimony of H. P. Whitemarsh, 
American corespondent representing Cen- 
tury Magazine and other periodicals, given 
before Taft Commission, Senate document 
No. 190, 56th Congress, 2d session, p. 17. 

Cardinal Gibbons, you cannot say 
that you are ignorant of the appalling 
record which your '"Church" made in 
the Philippines, after having had full 
sway there for centuries. Yet you now 
demand that this Democratic adminis- 
tration shall play false^ to the Ameri- 
can people, shall stultify itself, and 
shall keep the U. S. Army in the 
Islands for the purpose of peri^etuat- 
ing the rule of the Komanist robbers, 
seducers and murderers. 

What is your motive^ my Prince? 

Arc you compelled to obey an order 
from the Vatican? 

Are you as much of a slave to Rome, 
as you demand that the Filipinos shall 
ahvays be? * 

It would seem so, my Prince. 



-M. - 

,V - ' 

;- ;-;;--;.■■. ■;:-, ^ ;,4.--.:^^. 




■ : /^\y':\:.\ .. ; . v/-^-: -:Vv.-;.v;:=^ 


A Kind of Half Engagement to Ellen 

Isabel Ecclestone Mackay 

^^T T isn't as if we had ever given 

J^ them the slightest grounds for 
supposing that we wanted to," 
said KlU'n a trifle vaguely. She hatl 
turned away from Charles and was 
tying a knot in the hammock-rope 
to make it higher. 

""They know mighty well we don't 
want to!" said Charles, bitterly. He 
was so bitter that his heel had 
knocked a considerable hole in the 
grass, and so occupied that he was not 
looking Ellen's way at all. There was 
a painful pause. 

''I want to end it," said Ellen sud- 
denly. Her back was still towards 
Charles, necessarily, because she was 
thumping the hammock cushions into 
shape, but the ring in her voice w^as no 
less determined on that account. At 
the sound of it Charles left oif kicking 
the grass and turned around abruptly. 

"Oh — I say!" he stammered. His 
face was very red. 

"If you are thinking of the money, 


"'I say, if you are thinking of your 
uncle's money I can see a way out of 
that. It's a way I've often read about. 
You propose to me and I'll refuse you, 
and then you'll go and tell your uncle 
that I won't have you. It works beau- 
tifully in books. You see he can't be 
nasty about the money if it's my fault 
and not yours — stop spoiling the 

"Yes, Ellen, but — say, it is a scheme, 
isn't it? Only I— I don't half like it 
either. What books was it in?"' 

"Oh, I don't knoww, lots. It's quite 

"But uncle's a great reader, you 

"It wouldn't be in the books he readsj 

"But it's caddish ! Don't you think 
it's caddish, Ellen?" 

"It all depends on the way you do it. 
Don't be so self-conscious. Treat it 
as a matter of business. It's not as if 
I were in love with you, you know." 

"Oh — well, if you're truly in earn- 

"I truly am. Hurry up !" 

"Don't get me excited. I say* if you 
are truly in earnest. I'll do it. Ready 
now ! I have the honor, Ellen, of ask- 
ing you to marry me." 
" Ellen, whose hurry seemed suddenly 
to have departed, adjusted her nicely 
punched-up pillows comfortably and 
settled herself among them. Her serene 
gaze rested thoughtfully upon his 
flushed face. 

"I was not expecting this, Mr. Mere- 
dith," she said, "and in a matter of 
such importance I feel that I must have 
time. I Avill consult \\\y mother and let 
you know in a week's time." Then, 
seeing the blank dismay on the too- 
eloquent face before her her laugh rang 
out. "On second thoughts" she added 
"I see no reason for hesitation. I 
appreciate the honor but nothing in 
the world would induce me to marry 

This should have been altogether 
satisfactory yet the rejected suitor 
gave way to sulkiness. 

"You're" pretty strong about it," he 
complained. "And anyway I feel like 
a cad — " 

Ellen swaying in the hammock and 
helping out its swinging with an occa- 
sional push with the toe of a pretty 
slipper had evidently no intention of 
helping out Charles. 

"Besides," he went on, after a futile 
pause, "uncle will be sure to see through 
it, you know. By rights, you ought to 
have a prior attachment, and — " 



"I have a prior attachment," said 


Ellen pushed the hammock daintily. 
Charles had turned quite around now, 
but Ellen's gaze was far-off. She didn't 
seem to notice him. 

"Uncle would guess if we said it and 
is wasn't so," said Charles more calmly. 

"It -is so," the hammock was swing- 
ing nicely now. 

"You're not in earnest, Ellie?" 

"I am quite in earnest. If I cannot 
marry the man I love I shall marry 
no one •else. You may tell your uncle 
that. I think he will understand." 

There was a pause. Then Charles 
rose stiffly. 

"Then I suppose there is nothing 
more to be said. I might say that 1 
canot think you have treated me fairl}'. 
I might say that you have not dealt 
fairly by either your mother or my 
uncle, or myself — " 

"You mentioned yourself before." 

"In allowing us to suppose — to sup- 
pose — " 

"Oh, come!" laughed Ellen, '*! 
couldn't refuse you before you pro- 
posed, could I? Hadn't you better go 
and settle matters with your uncle?" 

"I am going, Ellen," gloomily, "you 
don't mean that you have gone and 
engaged yourself to that idiot Man- 

"il/r. Manners?" corrected Ellen 

"Because if you have — of course it's 
no business of mine — but I'm awfully 
sorry for you if you've done that. 

Ellen, Avhose eyes had been fixed 
upon the strip of river showing 
between the trees, sat up suddenly and 
waved her hand to a young man in 
flannels paddling a canoe. AVlien he 
had passed, "AVhat did you say, Char- 
lie?" she asked sweetly. 

"Oh, nothing. I know it's none of 
my business, but when a man has been 
like ' a brother to a girl for years he 

might expect to have his advice 
listened to." 

"I'm listening," placidly, "but 
wouldn't another time do, brother?" 

"That's you ! Make fun of every- 
thing. But I want to tell you right 
now that Manners — " But the arrival 
of the young man in flannels (who 
happened to be Mr. Manners himself) 
nuide further admonition impossible. 

"So sorry you have to go, Charlie," 
said Ellen. "Don't bang the gate, the 
hinge is broken." 

Charles Meredith closed the gate 
gently with all due regard for its bro- 
ken hinge. Once out on the road he 
drew a long breath. It was a breath 
of relief, naturally. He was relieved, 
very much relieved, so relieved that he 
found it hard to realize his relief and 
felt almost as if he were not relieved 
at all. This is a phenomenon which 
occurs, he assured himself, in all strong 
emotions. He was free. It was worth 
a little anoyance to be perfectly free, 
free as he never could have been as 
long as that half -taken- for-granted 
engagement had bound him to Ellen. 
All the same Ellen had not acted 
nicely ! Her saying that nothing on 
earth could induce her to marry him 
had been almost rude. Poor Ellen! If 
she w^ere really in earnest about Man- 
ners, he felt so sorry for her. Strange 
that a really nice girl, like Ellen, could 
be attracted by a young puppy, like 
Manners ! 

Reaching his own gate he banged it 
viciously as he went through. 

Of course it was easy, now, to see 
through her anxiety for a final settle- 
ment. She wanted to be free to engage 
herself to that brainless fool. Well, 
if she Avanted her freelom, he, Charles, 
would not be the man to hold her. He 
wanted no unwilling bride. She had 
bidden him to tell his uncle. He would 
do so at once and settle it forever (since 
she was in such a hurry). Perhaps she 
would be sorry when — he caught him- 
self up sharply. Of course she would 



not be sorrj'^ any more than he would 
be. People aren't sorry when they do 
not love each other. 

Anthony Meredith, reading in his 
cool study, glanced up with an expres- 
sion of bored civility at the entrance 
of his nephew, hot, dusty and cross. 

"It's as hot as blazes!" said Charles 
mopping his face. 

"It is?" politely. "I had not noticed 
it. But you do appear warm. You 
have been upon the river?" 

"No. I haven't," triumphantly. "1 
have been over calling on Ellen." 

The civily-bored expression gave 
place to one of real interest. 

"That's right. How is Ellen?" 

"Oh, perfectly all right, I should 
say. Able to refuse me in splendid 
form anyway." 

(There was a certain satisfaction in 
the dealing of the blow — no half-way 
measure — straight from the shoulder.) 

"Oh, wouldn't have you, eh?" 
Anthony Meredith's voice was quite 
unshaken. But perhaps, being a little, 
dried-up man who had lived a very full 
life, he had become used to receiving 
blows quietly. Perhaps, also, at sixty, 
one recovers a little from the surpris- 
ingness of things. At any rate he did 
not appear surprised even when his 
nephew's tone reproached him for the 
refusal of Ellen. Instead he leaned 
back in his chair and gazed thought- 
fully through the open window. 

"What did you say to her?" he asked 
judicially, after a pause. 

"Say?" ^Yhat did I say. I don't 
know. I asked her to marry me, of 
course." The growing sense of an 
injury which he could not name was 
causing Charles to splutter. 

"And she did?" 

"Said she wouldn't," snappishly. 

"Is that all she stid?" 

"No. She stid she wouldn't marry 
me for anything in the world." 

The shadow of a smile appeared 
around Uncle Anthony's dried up lips. 

"Ah ! that sounds more like Ellen ! 
Anything else? 

"She said, at least she intimated a — 
a prior attachment." 

"Dear me! She intimated that, did 
she?" Anthony Meredith' got up rather 
quickly and crossed over to the window, 
presumably to lower the blind. When 
he turned again his face was as dried- 
up and impassive as usual. 

"Well," he said, "I'm sorry, Charlie, 
but I expect you waited too long. It's 
Manners, of course? Nice chap. Man- 

"A perfect idiot !" 

"Nonsense, not at all. A little too 
handsome to be a man's man. But 
looks tell with the ladies. He has 
money, too, and position. Our little 
Ellen will quite blossom out. She is 
a lovely girl — a singularly lovely 
girl — " he broke off absently and for 
a moment there was silence in the 
room. "Well, it can't be helped. I 
don't blame you, Charles. With a chap 
like Manners in the field — " 

"Puppy !" 

"Eh! Were you addressing me?" 

"I say that Manners is nothing but a 
conceited puppy !" 

"Oh ! naturally. And yet I have 
imagined lately that you were rather 
attracted in another direction — a Miss 
Miller, isn't it? The little girl with 
the black pompadour?" 

"I have a great esteem for Miss Mil- 
ler," said Charles, stiffly. 

"Well, Charlie, if you care for her 
— I'm not going to be disagreeable. 
She is not my style ; but of course you 
know that. I suppose that her exceed- 
ing newness sometimes jars. You ought 
to be a better judge than l — you don't 
'think that she is a little — a little — 
er— " 

"Not at all," said Charles stoutly, 
"all nice girls are like that now. Man- 
ners are more unconventional than they 
used to be." 

"Oh, unconventional? Very well. I 
only want you to understand that you 



are quite free in the matter. AVlien 
Miss Miller comes here as your wife 
she will be welcomed as becomes the 
lady who is to take your mother's place. 
But there will be changes, naturally. 
We must be prepared for that." The 
sigh in the would-be-cheerful tones 
awoke in Charles a vague disquiet. 

''I do not see that any change is 
necessary," he said uncomfortably. 

"Don't make that mistake, my boy. 
This lady has not been accustomed to 
the quiet life we live. We must pre- 
pare to be more lively. For instance 
she will certainly expect to have the 
house done over." 

Charles' vague disquiet grew with 
his growing surprise at this benevolent 
attitude. He became conscious of a 
feeling that benevolence can be carried 
to extremes. 

"Do the house over — not much ! It's 
too jolly comfortable as it is." He 
declared vigorously. "Why it's the 
finest old Southern house in the county. 
I won't have it touched." 

Uncle Anthon}^ shook his head smil- 
ingly. There appeared to be a touch of 
pity in the smile. 

"I like to hear you say it,'' he replied, 
"but — well, these are early days to 
worry . And now, I am really very 

But when the door had closed behind 
his nephew, Anthom^ Meredith did not 
turn immediately to his book. Instead 
he stood for a moment toying with the 
windoAv blind and suddenly his grim 
face softened, smiled and wrinkled into 
a noiseless laugh. He had caught sight 
of Charles, hump-shouldered and 
depressed, going slowly in the direction 
of the river path. 

"Clever girl, Ellen!" he informed' 
the window blind. "Eemarkablv clever 

Meanwhile Charles of the hump- 
shoulders and depressed spirit was 
pushing out his row boat, seriously 
disturbed in mind. He knew that he 
was not feeling as he ought to feel, but, 

though quite well aware of what his 
proper state of feeling should be, he did 
not seem able to feel that way. 

"Something has to always spoil 
everything!'' he remarked gloomily 
with a vicious tug at the boat. Yester- 
day he had looked forward to today's 
hour upon the river with Lida (she 
had permitted him to drop the "Miss 
Miller") Avith feelings of unalloyed 
delight and the inexplicable change in 
his mental attitude was most annoy- 
ing. He didn't understand it. Why, 
when he ought to have been blissfully 
and superlativel}' happy, did he feel 
merely apprehensive? He, who had 
chafed so restlessly under that kind- 
of-half-engagement to Pollen, was free. 
He, who had so dreaded his uncle's 
frown (though as a last resort pre- 
pared to defy it in Lida's cause) was 
assured of his uncle's blessing and 
sympathy (hang his sympathy). In 
other words the course of true love had 
been miraculously smoothed — and he 
didn't feel even grateful. 

Of course it was wonderful to think 
that today, this very afternoon, he 
might ask Lida to marry him ! The 
realization came to him so suddenly 
that he dropped one of the boat cush- 
ions into the water and had to fish it 
out with the help of a few emphatic 
words. Xot that he really contem- 
plated so prompt a seizing of happi- 
ness. He was not, he assured himself, 
altogether selfish and was prepared to 
have some regard for his uncle's feel- 
ings — and Ellen's. True, his uncle haci 
expressed his willingness to approve 
and Ellen had shown clearly that his 
fate Avas nothing to her — still the old 
conviction that his engagement to Miss 
■Miller would mortally hurt both of 
them Avas not to be lightly shaken off. 

He decided that it would be quite out 
of the question to ask Lida to marry 
him today and this decision (from its 
very unselfishness) made him feel bet- 
ter.' Dear little Lida 1 "The little girl 
with the black pompadour !'' How 



horrid Uncle Anthony could be at 
times ! It was just like him to fix upon 
the point, the om point, in Lida's 
appearance which was not quite — he 
wondered dimly what it was that made 
Lida's pompadour look different from 
other ladies' pompadours— Ellen's, for 
instance? AVhen he and Lida were 
married he would ask her to dress her 
hair a little lower and not quite so 
broadly and puffily. But it must be 
quite a while, quite a long while, before 
he spoke of marriage. On account of 
the feelings of his uncle — and Ellen ! 

This piece of self-denial brought its 
own reward in a sudden lifting of his 
gloom. He was almost himself again 
when he shot his boat in to Lida's 
mother's landing. 

Lida was there, waiting, pouting 
delightfully because he was late. 

"I've a good mind not to go, now, 
Mr. Laggard," said Lida. 

"It is hot," agreed Charles, quite 
unexpectedly, even to himself. "If 
another afternoon — ? " 

Lida's pout disappeared as if by 
magic. "Oh, well, I won't be hard on 
you. I suppose Uncle Anthony kept 

"We had a talk," began Charles, 
and then he stopped. He felt no desire 
to tell Lida about the talk; a fact which 
she noticed almost before he did. 
"They've had it out!" she said to her- 
self quickly, but what "it" was she did 
not specify for Lida was supposed to 
be quite innocent of any knowledge 
concerning the kind-of-half-engage- 
ment to Pollen. She settled herself in 
the boat with a contented flutter. 

"Your cousin ;,Ellen Ogden, w^ent 
down the river just now with Jack 
Manners," she informed him, carelessly. 
"Say, his new canoe is a stunner! Its 
name is the 'Helen of Troy' — crazy 
name for a canoe — but I suppose it's as 
near as he dared to go."" She laughed. 
"I don't think I quite understand.'" 
Charles was pulling very hard for so 
hot a day. 

"Why. Helen— Ellen, stupid! Oh, 
look out ! You nearly ran into that 

Stumps were a common occurrence 
in the river so it could hardly have 
been the stump which made Charles 
look so cross. "I wish you wouldn't 
say such things, Lida," he said. "I 
don't suppose Manners had the faint- 
est idea of naming his canoe- after 
Ellen. He hasn't the shadow of a right 
to do it." 

Miss Miller made round eyes. 
"Oh, hasn't he? Why, I thought—" 
But if she hoped that he would ask 
her what she thought she was disap- 

"If you row so fast you will catch 
up with them, and we don't want to do 
fhat^ do we?" Miss Miller's inflexion 
was flattering and at the gentle insinu- 
ation of their sufficiency for each other 
Charles felt himself giow— at least he 
thought he felt himself glow— that is, 
he knew he ought to have glowed, but, 
as a matter of fact, nothing seemed co 
be quite what it ought to be today. Also, 
he became aware, with something like 
f, start, that he had actually been try- 
ing to overtake Ellen and Manners, was 
trying to overtake them now ! Once 
around the bend just beyond Uncle 
Anthony's landing and they would 
surely be in sight — 

•TIo! Charles!" 

At the call Lida sat up straighter, 
fluttering. "O Charlie," she exclaimed 
with undisguised delight. "It's your 
T^ncle Anthony calling you." 

"But we don't want to stop now. 

"Oh yes, we do, Charlie — please. I 
want to get to know your uncle, 
because—" Lida blushingly stopped 
herself in prettiest confusion. Charles 
turned the boat into the bank with a 
baffled jerk. 

"Isn't it very warm upon the river?" 
asked Uncle Anthony blandly. "How 
do you do, Miss Miller? Miss Miller 
looks quite warm, Charles. Won't you 



come up to the house, Miss Miller and 
have something cool?" 

"So kind of you, Mr, Meredith," mur- 
mured Lida. She was really over- 
joyed, for, hitherto, Uncle Anthony 
had been so decidely cool himself that 
the inappropriateness of cooling drinks 
would have struck the most unobserv- 
ing. "It is hot, don't you think so, 

Charlie thought that it had suddenly 
grown several degrees hotter, especially 
as he read in his uncle's amused smile 
a ready appreciation of the qualm. 

"Ellen and Mr. Manners wouldn't 
stay, though I asked them," continued 
Uncle Anthony cheerfully. "I told 
them to look out for sun stroke. Really, 
I feel like a benevolent society, or life 
saving station or something of that 

Lida's laugh rang out, a little shrilly. 
She was nervous and that helped the 
shrillness or perhaps Charles' bad 
humor helped him to notice it. "I wish 
she wouldn't laugh like that," he 
thought involuntarily and then, with 
an inward qualm, "She'll be calling me 
'Charlie' when Ellen's around some- 
time." And he felt angry with himself 
because of Lida's attitude. 

"You have such a dear, delightful 
place here, Mr. Meredith," Lida was 
saying. "I am sure you must love it 
very, very much." Lida had a girlish 
manner of which she was not a little 

"One is naturally attached to one's 
home," said Uncle Anthony placidly. 
"But don't you find it a trifle old- 
fashioned— a little bit behind the times 
— eh?" Charles glanced at his uncle 
in angry amazement at the depreciat- 
ing tone. 

"Oh, well, of course, a little freshen- 
ing would do wonders," agreed Lida, • 
pausing nevertheless with a little ges- 
ture of delight as the white of the long 
balcony appeared through the trees. 

Uncle Anthony nodded. "Yes — it's 

j)retty!" he said but still there was a 
doubtful note in his praise. 

"With a little of the timber down, 
another terrace and a summer house 
or two it would be perfect," went on 
Lida reading encourag:^ment in his 
eyes. "Did you never think of a river 
pagoda down by the landing?" Some- 
thing in Charles' face stopped her. 
reminding her that it might be unwise 
to betray how thoroughly she had 
"thought out" devices for improving 
the Meredith estate. 

"You mean a pagoda like the 
Ramond-Forbes' have put up?" 
enquired Uncle Anthony much inter- 
ested. "It would certainly be a change, 
wouldn't it? And young folk like 
changes! We older folk do not pro- 
gress, I'm afraid, but we must not be 
selfish." He smiled indulgently. 
Lida, much tempted, cast another quick 
glance at Charles, but his face was 
turned aAvay. "I don't really see why 
Charles has been making such an ogre 
out of this pleasant old gentleman." 
she thought. 

"Young e5'es — young eyes!" went on 
Uncle Anthony. "No doubt they see 
much that wants doing in an old place 
like this, outside and in." 

"Old places are quite perfect," said 
Lida. "With a little freshening up, 
you know ! What charming effects one 
sees nowadays. Have you been inside 
the Howard's new place up the river? 
It's a dream, really." 

"Nightmare!" said Charles with the 
force of sudden explosion. "Junk 

Miss Miller was unpleasantly 

"Oh, don't mind him!" laughed 
Uncle Anthony, "Charles hasn't any 
taste. He wasn't educated for a house 
decorator." He smiled at Lida and she, 
who at no time was gifted with great 
penetration, smiled back. "Charlie has 
been making difficulties," she thought. 
"I shall be able to do anything I like 
with this "kind old thing." 



"The Howard Mansion certainly sur- 
passes anything within a reasonable 
radius," went on the kind old thing. 
"But the doing over of an old house 
like this would be a different matter, 
more difficult — calling for more cour- 
age^ don't you think?" 

Lida pursed her lips thoughtfully, 
her eyes questioning Charles. She was 
afraid Charles wasn't enjoying the con- 
versation. And yet, on the other hand, 
she might be sorry some day, if she 
didn't take her chance as it came and 
plant a few of her long cherished ideas 
in Uncle Anthony's receptive mind. It 
would be easy enough to soothe Char- 
lie down afterw^ards. 

"Oh — courage!" she said. "Natur- 
ally one must have courage. In refur- 
nishing, for instance, in an old place it 
is necessary to make a clean sweep of 
all the old rubbish. Get the house prac- 
tically empty. It pays in the end. It's 
a fatal mistake to mix — ^you're sure to 
ruin your initial scheme and — " 

Charles rose with a murmured 
apology and disappeared into the 

"Gone to get some more lemonade," 
explained Uncle Anthony cheerfully. 
"Now in regard to the long drawing- 
room. Just on the spur of the moment, 
of course, what do you think? You 
don't mind freshening up an old man's 
ideas I'm sure?" 

Lida didn't mind at all and so occu- 
pied did she become in setting out her 
fancies in the fertile soil of Uncle 
Anthony's unprotesting mind that she 
quite forgot to notice that Charles was 
absent a very long time and that, when 
he returned (without the lemonade), it 
was so late that nothing but immediate 
departure could be thought of. 

Uncle Anthony handed her into the 
boat with regretful gallantry. "Really, 
Charles," he said, "Miss Miller's ideas 
are most stimulating. I begin to think 
that I am not such a hopeless old fogy 
after all. I hope to see you here again 
very soon, Miss Miller. Your idea 

about the throwing out of a bay win- 
dow in the library — what did you say, 

"Nothing — jannned my hand in the 
oar lock ! I may not be home for din- 
ner tonight, sir." 

Uncle Anthony smiled his indulgent 
smile and Lida blushed prettily. The 
boat shot out. 

"The cheek of some people!" said 
Lida laughing. "Inviting yourself to 
dinner in that way." 

"Eh ! oh, I wasn't going to do that. 
I referred to another engagement." 

Lida's face clouded. There was 
something in his tone which she did not 

"If it's not a very important engage- 
ment perhaps you can break it," she 
suggested kindly. 

"Sorry, but I couldn't possibly break 
it." Charles was not even looking at 

"Well, don't upset us!" Lida's tone 
was sharp. She felt chilled and uncom- 
fortable and was beginning to be 
strangely distrustful of her afternoon's 
pleasure. Charles was not proving as 
easy to "soothe" as she had expected. 
Could she have been foolish in follow- 
ing old Mr. Meredith's lead so openly? 
With a noticeable lack of her usual self- 
confidence she tried again. 

"Can't you stay, if I ask you — Char- 

"No, really, Lida, I can't. It's 
important. Thank you just the same." 
Charles was rowing very hard and his 
spirits had noticeably improved. He 
smiled at her. "You see, I'm rather late 
for my engagement as it is — a few 
years late." 

"Whatever do you mean?" Lida's 
tone was fretful. But Charles only 
laughed and rowed a little faster. In 
fact so great was his hurry that he had 
not time to say good-bye more than 
once when the landing stage was 
finally reached. Not a word about a 
ride or row tomorrow, not an appoint- 
ment of any kind. 



"Whatever is the matter with him?" 
asked Lida's mother with frank curi- 
osity. "Have you quarreled?" 

"Oh — quarj'ellcd P'' said Lida. Her 
inflexion showed how much more seri- 
ous it was. She turned away biting 
her lip. 

"Well, don't let your eyes get all 
red, anyway ! Mr. Manners is coming 
to dinner — you had better wear your 
flowered chiffon." 

"I won't," said Lida, and she con- 
tinued to cry until her nose was really 
something of a sight. For, though she 
was an acknowledged flirt and a good 
deal of a schemer in a little way, she 
had her preferences. 

Meanwhile this particular prefer- 
ence was pulling swiftly upstream; the 
important engagement was evidently in 
that direction. So rapidly did he row, 
in spite of the heat, that in half an 
hour he had tied up his boat at the 
landing belonging to the mother of his 
step-cousin, Ellen. One would have 
thought that here he might have rested 
a little to cool off and to gain control 
of a certain nervousness, but the import- 
ance of the engagement must have been 
imperative, for he did not waste a 
moment, but set oft", at once, almost 
running through the trees. 

Ellen was swinging in the hammock, 
helping it out now and then with the 
tip of her slipper. She looked very 
cool and thoughtful and restful. In 
fact she looked as Ellen always looked 
and in the dusk of the trees you couldn't 
notice that her hair was a trifle more 
ruffled and her eyes slightly dimmer 
than usual. 

To her came Charles, hot from his 

rowing, hot from his run through the 
orchard and hot from a certain agita- 
tion which seemed to affect his nerves 
in a wholly new and unaccountable 

"Ellen !"' he said. It must have been 
the new and unacccustomed agitation 
which made his voice shake so badly. 

"Why!— is it you Charlie?" Was it 
imagination or did Ellen's clear voice 
shake a little, too? At any rate there 
was a note in it which seemed to give 
him courage. He had a strong hand 
upon the hammock and stopped its 
swinging. Ellen sat up and glanced at 
him, a little timidly. He couldn't help 
seeing her eyes and surely they seemed 
a little dimmer than usual ! 

"Oh, Ellen!" he said and the next 
moment he was down on his knees upon 
the very spot where his heel had kicked 
a hole that morning. 

"Have you any use for a fool, 
Ellen ?" he asked. She let him take her 
hand but she did not answer just at 
once. He could see her eyes quite 
clearly. Ellen had certainly been cry- 
ing! Then "Are you the fool, Char- 
lie?" she said. He nodded. 

xVgain there was a little silence. He 
drew closer, so close that he could see 
how tumbled her hair was. She had 
been crying — but why ? A moment ago 
he had felt sure of her, now he was 
afraid. "Ellen!" he said. There was 
fear in his face. 

She drew her hand away, laughing 
a little. Then, quite frankly, she put 
it up and wiped away a tear. "Oh, 
dear!" she sighed. "I was beginning 
to think that you were never going to 
find it out!" 

General Lee After the War 

Margaret J. Preston 

IT would not be easy, for one who had 
not been in the midst of it, to realize 
the enthusiasm that existed among 
the Southern people for General Lee at 
the conclusion of the war. Nothing 
could exceed the veneration and love, 
the trust and absolute loyalty, which 
people and soldiery alike had mani- 
fested towards him through the strug- 
gle. But it was after the Avar had closed 
that the affection of the people seemed 
more than ever a consecrated one. The 
name given to him universally in the 
army, "Old Mars' Robert," is an evi- 
dence of the peculiar tenderness with 
which he was regarded. But after 
defeat came, all this feeling was inten- 
sified by the added one of sympathy. 
Nowhere could he move abroad with- 
out being greeted with such demonstra- 
tions of love and interest as always 
touched his generous and gracious 

Living near General Lee as I did, 
from 1865 till his death, in 1870, I was 
cognizant of many little instances and 
scenes which illustrate this feeling, and 
also serve to bring out some of the finer 
points of his character in a way no 
stately biography would condescend to 
do. It may be worth while to focalize 
some of these minute side-lights, in 
order to indicate the less known charac- 
teristics of that inner life which shrank 
from manifesting itself to the world at 

A brief period only had passed after 
the surrender at Appomattox when 
offers of homes began to be pressed 
upon him. His family was originally 
English, and he had many relatives 
among titled people in the old country, 
who insisted upon his coming and shar- 
ing, for a time, the ease and luxury of 
their homes. But he positively declined 
to expatriate himself. "No," he said, 

"I will never forsake my people in their 
extremity; what they endure, I will 
endure, and I am ready to break my 
last crust with them." And he refused 
to leave Virginia. Nothing ever gave 
him greater pleasure than to witness 
personal, strenuous effort to overcome 
the disasters of the war. To see a small 
farmer attempting to fence his fields 
with green saplings was to him a sight 
that made his eyes brighten. 

Many homes were urged upon him in 
his native State ; but as my sister, Mrs. 
E. R. Cocke, of Cumberland, said when 
he accepted her offer of a vacant plan- 
tation adjoining her own, which was a 
part of her estate, "He chose among 
these homes one of the most unpretend- 
ing." With furniture from her own 
house, she fitted up for him and his 
family a comfortable abode at "Der- 
went," Powhatan County; and here he 
gathered together, for the first time 
since they had left Arlington, his wife 
and children around him. "Never shall 
I forget," she said, "his unaffected grat- 
itude, and his gracious acceptance of 
this simple home I and my sons had 
prepared for him. The plantation of 
Derwent was only two miles from my 
own, and our great country gardens 
readily met the wants of the new resi- 
dents. As I saw the beautiful simplicity 
with which these trifling supplies were 
received, it seemed impossible for me to 
realize that this was the man upon 
whom the fate of the South had hung; 
that this was the man for whom thou- 
sands were ready to rush to death ; that 
this was the man before whom the 
hearts of all the Southern Confederacy 
bowed in reverence. On day, shortly 
after he came to Derwent, he rode over 
on Traveler (his famous war-horse) 
to a neighboring country store, which 
was also the post office. The desire of 



the people, black as well as white, to see 
the General was intense, for this was 
but a few weeks after the surrender. 
He walked quietly into the store, and 
was engaged with its proprietor in talk 
about the prospects of the crops, and 
such like things, when the place began 
to be crowded by the country people, 
intent upon catching a glimpse of the 
great commander. He seemed not to 
observe them at first, but turning 
round, and noticing the press about 
him, he said, in an apologetic way, 'Ah, 
Mr. Palmer, pardon me for keeping 
you talking about corn and tobacco so 
long; for I see 1 am detaining you from 
your many customers.' There was noth- 
ing whateevr to indicate the slightest 
consciousness that the crowd had 
pressed in to see him. 

"Another incident," she went on to 
say, "I recall of General Lee, which 
seems to me worth relating. My head 
dining room servant, who had occupied 
his post for twenty-five years, and 
whose ancestors for more than a hun- 
dred years had been born on the planta- 
tion, had determined to avail himself of 
his sudden freedom. We were all sit- 
ting at dinner — for it was before the 
General and his family had taken pos- 
session of JDerwent — when Shepherd, 
the man in question, all ready for 
departure, entered the dining room, to 
take leave of the assembled family. I 
well remember the kindness with which 
the General rose from his seat, and, 
shaking the old servant cordially by the 
hand, gave him some good advice and 
asked Heaven to bless him. There was 
no feeling of bitterness towards him 
because he was leaving his mistress to 
much distraction and care from which 
he might have saved her; instead of 
this, a benediction and a Godspeed." 

When homes were being offered to 
him, both abroad and from one end of 
the late Confederacy to the other, his 
eldest daughter, who was visiting in 
our neighborhood, said one day, in the 
hearing of a trustee of Washington 

College, "Why don't they propose to 
my father some place in which he can 
work? For he never will accept the 
gratuity of a home." The remark was 
caught up, and conveyed to the board 
of trustees. This college, situated in 
the very heart of Virginia, was founded 
before the American Revolution; and 
after it had received a large endowment 
from Washington himself its name was 
changed from Liberty Hall to Wash- 
ington College — the first institution of 
any kind whatever that bore the name 
of the great patriot. Thenceforth this 
college was the educator of a large 
number of the prominent men of Vir- 
ginia. Its buildings had been injured, 
its professors and students scattered, 
and its resources crippled by the War. 
An offer of its presidency was made to 
General Lee with scarcely a hope that 
he would accept it; but accept it he did, 
without hesitation, saying, "I may thus 
influence my young countrymen." 

I once heard it said by Professor 
White, the professor of Greek in our 
college, who had himself been a Con- 
federate officer: "The first appearance 
of the General in our streets was thor- 
oughly characteristic. As I passed up 
our main street one day in the summer 
of 18G5 I was suddenly confronted by 
General Lee on his fine war-horse Trav- 
eler, dressed in white linen from head to 
foot, wholly unattended, even by his 
black groom. Nobody in the town knew 
he was coming. This was as he wished 
it, for it was his desire to shun every 
demonstration. Here was the man who 
for four years had never moved abroad 
without being attended by a military 
staff composed of some of the most bril- 
liant younger men of the South, and 
who never appeared anywhere without 
being received with enthusiastic shouts 
from all beholders — now with only one 
person to greet him, and an old Con- 
federate to hold his stirrup ! But as 
every man in the town had been a sol- 
dier, it was not long before the street 
rang with cheers." 



I well remember the first visit I paid 
to Mrs. Lee on the General's taking 
possession of the house of the college 
pres;ident. There were many visitors 
present, who all came, with a sort of 
exalted reverence, to pay their formal 
respects to General and Mrs. Lee. 
When we rose to take leave, my little 
son, who accompanied me, could not 
find his cap. What was my surprise to 
hear Mrs. Lee interrupt her husband 
in his animated talk with some dis- 
tinguished gentlemen present — not to 
ask him to summon a servant to do her 
errand, but to say : 

"Robert, Herbert Preston has lost his 
cap; will you go into the back parlor 
and see if he has left it there ?" 

We were not used then to hear the 
leader of our armies bidden to wait on 
a child! 

At one of our first Commencements — 
I think the very first — at which Gen- 
eral Lee presided after he became presi- 
dent of the college, the hall was filled 
with an immense crowd to whom he 
w\as the central object of interest. Dur- 
ing the progress of the speeches, a lit- 
tle boy four years old became separated 
from his parents and went wandering 
up one of the aisles in frightened search 
of them. The General noticed the 
child's confusion, and, gaining his eye, 
beckoned him to come to him on the 
platform, where he sat surrounded by 
many of the brilliant officers of the late 
Confederacy. The tender signal was 
irresistible to the child. He instantly 
made his way to the feet of the General, 
sat down there, and leaned his head 
against his knee, looking up in his face 
with the utmost trust, apparently thor- 
oughly comforted. Thus resting, he 
feel asleep, with his protector's arms 
around him, and when the time came 
for the General to take his part in the 
prescribed ceremonies we who were 
looking on were touched in no little 
degree as we saw him carefully rise 
from his seat and adjust the little head 

softly upon the sofa so as not to waken 
the confiding little sleeper. 

Plis love for children was one of his 
most marked traits. He possessed the 
royal attribute of never forgetting 
faces or names; and not a boy in our 
streets ever took off his cap to salute 
him as he passed by on Traveler, nor 
a little girl courtesied to him on the 
sidewalk, that he did not for a moment 
check his rein to give an answering 
salute, invariably naming them, and 
perhaps the pleasure of a ride on the 
saddle before him. We found him early 
one Christmas morning at our door. 
He had come to bring some Christmas 
presents to my little boys; and I dis- 
covered that he had done the same for 
all the children of his friends. He 
told me once of an amusing scene he 
encountered, in which children played 
a part, from which he laughingly said 
he retreated, ignominiously. A few 
miles out of the town he was overtaken 
in his ride by a thunder storm, and 
sought refuge in the house of a gentle- 
man whom he knew. Mr. W and 

his wife were absent, but a group of 
children who were playing marbles on 
the parlor carpet came forward at once 
and made him welcome. But the at- 
tractions of the game were too power- 
ful for their politeness and that of the 
little visitor they had with them; and 
as the General begged them not to stop 
their playing, they took him at his 
word and went on with their game. In 
a little while an altercation arose. 

"Now, Mary," said Tom, "I call that 
cheating! You didn't do that thing 

"Take that back, Tom!" broke out 
Charlie. "You shan't say my sister 

"But she did," cried Tom ,with sul- 
len persistence, "and I'll say it again !" 
With that Charlie rose in his wrath 
and collared Tom ; and Mary, trying to 
separate the combatants, burst into 
tears and cried out, "O General Lee, 
please don't let them fight!" 



"My good fellows," said the General, 
grasping each boy by the shoulder, 
"There's some better way to settle your 
quarrels than with your fists." But in 
vain he tried to separate the little 
wrestlers. "I argued, I remonstrated, 
I commanded; but they were like two 
3^oung mastiffs, and never in all my 
military service had I to own myself so 
perfectly powerless. I retired beaten 
from the field, and let the little fellows 
fight it out." 

His ability to recall a name, after 
he had once heard it, was peculiar. One 
of the college professors told me that in 
riding out with him one day they 
passed an old mill, at the door of which 
stood the dusty German miller, with 
the most barbarous of German names, 
waiting with the hope of receiving a 
handshake from the leader under whom 
his sons had served. His wish was 
gratified, and the old man was made 
proud and happy. Not long after, the 
same professor was passing the same 
mill, when at the door the miller again 
presented himself. By no effort of 
memory could the queer German name 
be recalled by the professor; but before 
he had time to speak, the General rode 
straight to the door, and, with a cheer- 
ful "Good morning," named the old 
man at once. 

He had the gentlest way possible 
of giving counsel and administering 
rebuke. I remember hearing him saj', 
in a presence where such testimony was 
worth more than a dozen temperance 
lectures: "Men need no stimulant; it is 
something, I am persuaded, that they 
can do without. ^\nien I went into the 
field, at the beginning of the war, a 
good lady friend of mine gave me two 
sealed bottles of very superb French 
brandy. I carriea them with me 
through the entire campaign; and when 
I met my friend again, after all was 
over, I gave her back both her bottles 
of brandy, with the seals unbroken. It 
may have been some comfort to me to 
know that I had them in case of sudden 

emergency, but the moment never came 
Avhen I needed to use them." 

His skill and wisdom in managing 
the young men who crowded to the col- 
lege after his accession as president was 
extraordinary. Owing to the closing 
of so many of the Southern schools of 
learning, the number of students was 
very large, reaching five hundred in the 
earlier sessions; but a case of discipline 
rarely occurred. He was accustomed to 
say to the students when they pre- 
sented themselves in his office, on their 
entrance at college, "Now, my friends, 
I have a way of estimating young men 
which does not often fail me. I cannot 
note the conduct of any one, for even 
a brief period, without finding out 
what sort of a mother he had. You all 
honor your mothers: need I tell you 
that I know you will have that honor 
in reverent keeping?" So tender an 
appeal as this went straight to the 
heart of many a youth as no formal 
advice could have done. 

He told me that once at Arlington, 
when he was on a visit home from one 
of the frontier posts, he went out one 
wintry morning, after a slight fall of 
snow, and strolled down one of the 
graveled walks. Hearing some one 
behind him, he turned and saw his 
eldest son fitting his little feet into the 
distinct tracks he had left in the snow, 
and making great strides in order to do 
this effectually. "I learned a lesson, 
then and there," he said, "which I 
never afterwards forgot. My good man, 
I said to myself, you must be careful 
how you walk, and where you go, for 
there are those following you who will 
set their feet where you set yours." 
Something similar to this has been told 
of another, but I had this from General 
Lee himself. 

Few men were more skilled in the 
avoidance of everything that could 
wound the feelings of others. On the 
occasion of General Lee's being sum- 
moned to Washington to give testi- 
mony, an incident occurred which illus- 



trates this characteristic. A connection 
of my own, who attended him as one 
of his comphmentary staff, told me that 
when in Washington there were multi- 
tudes of persons — and among them 
many of the most distinguished in the 
land, North and South — seeking audi- 
ence with General Lee; evening after 
evening was occupied with these inter- 
views. Again and again had my friend 
been beset by a person who had no 
claim to be presented, ana as often had 
he been waived aside on the plea that 
the number of gentlemen coming to be 
introduced was so great as to embar- 
rass his provisional staff. But this per- 
sistent Confederate watched his oppor- 
tunity and made the best of it. Coming 

up to Colonel M- when he was a 

little off his guard he whispered, "Take 
me up now; there is nobody being in- 
troduced at this moment." 

"But don't you see that the General 
is surrounded by a group of officers and 
congressmen, and that it won't do to 
break in upon their conversation?" 

But the old soldier would not be 

shaken off. So Colonel M thought 

the best way to end the matter would be 
to lead him up to the General, and thus 
in a moment put a stop to his pertin- 
acity. Taking him, accordingly, by the 
arm, he drew himforward. The large 
circle opened and allowed a pathway, 
and the man was presented in due form 
and received with as much courtesy as 
if he had been a prince of the blood. 

Colonel M was about to lead him 

instantly away, when he suddenly 
stepped into the open space where the 
group had made way for him, and in a 
rather loud voice said : 

"General, I have always thought that 
if I ever had the honor of meeting you 
face to face, and there was an oppor- 
tunity allowed me, I would like to ask 
you a question which nobody but you 
can answer. I seem to have that oppor- 
tunity now. This is what I want to 
know : What was the reason that you 

failed to gain the victory at the battle 
of Octtyshnrg?'''' 

To have such an ill-timed question 
dropped like a bomb in such a presence 
was, to say the least of it, embarrass- 
ing, and some curt rejoinder would 
have been natural and to the purpose; 
but General Lee's kind-heartedness 
would not permit a rude dismissal even 
to so unwarrantable a questioner. 
Advancing and gently taking him by 
the hand, and while all the listening 
group stood round amazed at the man's 
presumption, the Geenral quietly said: 

"My dear sir, that would be a long 
story, and would require more time 
than you see I can possibly command 
at present ; so we will have to defer the 
matter to another occasion." 

This same friend gave me an instance 
of a similar encounter that concerned 
Mrs. Lee, whose simplicity and kindli- 
ness of heart rivaled that of her hus- 

The General and his wife were at the 
Virginia White Sulphur Springs, 
occupying one of the pretty cottages 
that had been set apart for them. The 
crowd of visitors was great, and every- 
body who had the least show for so 
doing was asking for introductions, for 
the War had not been over. 

"I encountered a good-natured but 
absurd man from the far South," said 

Colonel M , "whose enthusiasm for 

the Lee family was at fever heat. His 
pompous way of talking was a constant 
amusement to me; and when he asked 
that I should intrude upon the gay 
group that always filled the piazza of 
the General's cottage and introduce 
him, I naturally hesitated somewhat, 
fearing lest he should overpower them 
by one of his magniloquent apos- 
trophes. He joined me one evening just 
as we were passing the cottage door, 
where a part}^ of visitors were being 
entertained by the General and his 
wife, 'Now is your time,' he whispered, 
and he forthwith drew me to the steps, 
where, as in duty bound, I presented 



him. Withdrawing a little, he assumed 
a Hamlet-like pose, and lifting his 
hand with a most dramatic air, he 
began : 

" 'Do I behold the honored roof that 
shelters the head of him before whose 
name the luster of Xapoleon's pales into 
a shadow? Do I see the walls within 
which sits the most adored of men? 
Dare I tread the floor which she who is 
a scion of the patriotic house of the 
revered Washington condescends to 
hallow with her presence? Is this the 
portico that trails its vines over the 
noble pair — ' 

"I stumbled back aghast," said Col- 
onel M , "at m}^ own blunder, as I 

listened to this ridiculous speech, which 
I really believed was gotten up and 
conned for the occasion. But I was 
relieved in a moment when ]\Irs. I^ee. 
quietly laying down her knitting and 
interrupting the rhetorical effort, with 
a kind look upon her face replied : 

" "Yes, this is our cabin; will you take 
a seat upon the bench?" 

General Lee's considerate courtesy 
never failed him. He used to be over- 
powered with letters from every part of 
the South, on every imaginable subject, 
written by the wives and mothers of 
his old soldiers, asking questions which 
it was impossible for him to answer, 
and seeking aid which it was impossible 
for him to give. Indigent women 
would write, begging him to find a 
place where their boys and girls might 
support themselves. Crippled soldiers 
by scores sought for help from him; 
and multitudes whose only claim was 
that they had fought for the Confed- 
eracy entreated his counsel and peti- 
tioned for his advice in every sort of 

I once said to hom, "I hope you do 
not feel obliged to reply to all these let- 

"I certainly do," was his reply. 
"Think of these poor people ! It is a 
great deal of trouble for them to write : 
why should I not be willing to take the 

trouble to answer them? And as that 
is all I can give most of them, I give it 
ungrudgingly." And yet at this time 
he had five hundred young men under 
his management, and a corps of twenty- 
five professors; and this in a line of 
work totally novel to him. 

His humility was as conspicuous as 
anything about him. His religious 
character was pronounced and openly 
shown. But he arrogated nothing to 
himself as a religious man. I was pres- 
ent once when my husband informed 
him of an effort just being made to 
supply our county with Bibles, of 
which it had been stripped to meet the 
wants of the army during the war. The 
Bible Society was being reorganized, 
and the General was pressed to accept 
the post of president — "For the sake of 
the cause; for the sake of the testimony 
his name would bear; for the sake of 
the example it would be to his five hun- 
dred students." My husband was called 
out before he had finished his plea, and 
I was left in the library for a few 
moments alone with the General. I 
shall not easily forget the expression of 
profound humility on his face, as with 
a subdued voice he turned to me and 
said : 

"Ah, my dear madam, I feel myself 
such a poor sinner in the sight of God 
that I cannot consent to be set up as a 
Christian example to any one. This is 
the real reason why I decline to do 
what the colonel urges so strongly." 

He was in the act of saymg grace at 
his own dinner table when the fatal 
stroke fell which terminated his life. 

It was not in General Lee's nature to 
entertain feelings of bitterness against 
any human being. As was the case 
with Stonewall Jackson, he never used 
the word "Yankee" — the term so gen- 
erally appliea through the South to the 
soldiers of the Northern army. He 
always spoke of them as the "Federals" 
or the "enemy." On the occasion of 
Mr. Greely. Mr. O'Connor, and others 
coming to Richmond to offer bail for 



ex-President Davis, I heard him, with 
something more approaching to acri- 
mony than I had ever been witness of, 
speak of some of the expressions used 
by Southern editors. "I condemn," he 
said, "such bitterness wholly. Is it any 
wonder the Northern journals should 
retort upon us as they do, when we 
allow ourselves to use such language as 
I found in some of our papers yester- 

As to the immediate personality of 
the man, we people of the South natur- 
ally enough think that, take him for all 
in all, physically, intellectually, socially 
and morally, we never saw his equal. 
He was a superb specimen of manly 
grace and elegance. He had escaped 
that preciseness of manner Avhich a 
whole life spent in military service is 
apt to give. There was about him a 
stately dignity, calm poise, absolute 
self-possession, entire absence of self- 
consciousness, and gracious considera- 
tion for all about him that made a com- 
bination of character not to be sur- 
passed. His tall, erect figure, his bright 
color, his brilliant hazel eyes, his per- 
fect white teeth (for he had never used 
tobacco), his attractive smile, his chiv- 
alry' of bearing, the musical sweetness 
of his pure voice, were attributes never 
to be forgotten by those who had once 
met him. 

His domestic life was idyllic in its 
beautiful simplicity. His devotion to 
his invalid wife, who for many years 
was a martyr to rheumatic gout, was 
pathetic to see. He had her often con- 
veyed to our various medicinal springs 
in Virginia, himself riding on horse- 
back beside her carriage. I recall one 
instance in which he preceded her by a 
few days in order that he might have 
an apartment prepared, under his skill- 
ful engineering, by means of which her 
invalid chair was placed upon a little 
platform and carefully lowered into 
the bath, in order that the descent and 
ascent of steps might be avoided. His 
tenderness to his children, especially his 

daughters, was mingled with a delicate 
courtesy which belonged to an older 
day than ours — a courtesy which recalls 
the prcux chevalier of knightly times. 
He had a pretty way of addressing his 
daughters, in the presence of other peo- 
ple, with a prefix which would seem to 
belong to the age of lace ruffles and side 

"Where is my little Miss Mildred?" 
he would say on coming in from his 
ride or w-alk at dusk. "She is my light- 
bearer; the house is never dark if she 
is in it." 

He was passionately fond of nature, 
and never wearied of riding about on 
Traveler among our beautiful Virginia 
hills and mountains, with one of his 
daughters invariably at his side. His 
delight in the early flush of the spring, 
in the rich glow of summer, and in the 
superb coloring of our autumn land- 
scape, was wonderfully fine and keen. 
"Xo words can express," says one of his 
daughters, "the intense enjoyment he 
would get out of a brilliant sunset." 

He was fond of literature, and 
indulged all his life in a wide range of 
reading quite apart from the bearings 
of his profession. When at home he 
was always in the habit of reading 
aloud to his family. "My first and 
most intimate acquaintance with Sir 
AValter Scott's metrical romances," one 
of his daughters says, "came through 
papa. He read them to us when we 
were children, till we almost knew them 
by heart, and the best English classics 
were always within reach of his hand. 
One of the last winters of his life he 
read aloud to the family group the 
latest translation of the Iliad and 

General Lee possessed one quality 
which only those who came into close 
intimacy with him were much aware of 
— he had a delicious sense of humor. 
Many a student was turned aside from 
some perilous course by a sly shaft, 
feathered with his keen wit, or by some 
humorous question which conveyed a 



gentle reproof, of which only he for 
whom the reproof was intended could 
understand the bearings. lie could be 
very stern when it was necessary, but 
•^omehow his sternness never embit- 

AVhen he became president of the 
college he immediately had morning 
prayers established in the chapel; and 
never during his incumbency was he 
known to be absent from them, if he 
was well and at home. The only things 
with which he ever grew impatient were 
self-indulgence and failure in duty. The 
voice of duty was to him the voice of 
God. Under no circumstances was he 
willing to disobey if, nor could he 
understand how others could be. This 
was something he continually 
impressed upon his students. AVliat is 
duty to God and man, and how to do 
that duty, were the two leading ques- 
tions of his life. His persistent assid- 
uity in giving himself up to every 
detail of college discipline and life was 
so scrupulous as sometimes to lead to 
the suggestion on the part of professors 
of a little indulgence towards himself, 
but they never succeeded in getting 
him to relax the rigid rules by which he 
governed every action. 

One of the last acts of his life was a 
filial one. Accompanied by his daugh- 
ter Agnes he went to Florida to visit 
the grave of his father, "Light-Horse 
Harry Lee." This journey — his last 

earthly one — was a sort of sacred pil- 
grimage. Ae he returned from Florida 
he sought out, in North Carolina, the 
final resting place of his lovely daugh- 
ter Annie, who had died in that State 
in the early freshness of her beautiful 
girlhood, just at the moment when her 
father was winning his most brilliant 
successes. Agnes told me, when she 
came home, of her father's extreme 
unwillingness to be made a hero of any- 
where, and of the reluctance he mani- 
fested, which it took many pleas to 
overcome, to show himself to the 
crowds assembled at every station along 
his route who pressed to catch a sight 
of him. 

"AVhy should they care to see me," he 
would say, when urged to appear on 
the platform of the train — "why should 
they care to see me? I am only a poor 
old Confederate." This feeling he 
carried wnth him to the latest hour of 
his life. 

One who had been a member of his 
staff, and who was present in the death 
chamber most of the time during his 
last illness, told me how impressed he 
was with the General's unwillingness to 
give any expression to this thought. 
"Not," he said, "that he was incapable 
of speaking; but a supreme reticence, 
that was to me very noble, held him 
back. He semed averse to any utter- 
ance of the sacred secrets of his soul, 
lest they should afterwards be spoken 
aloud in the ear of the world." 

TKe Roman Church in Spain 

J, J. Bosdan 

IT is difficult to appreciate the merits 
of the present controversy in Spain 
which is still going on between the 
church and the people, unless we are 
familiar with the claims of the contest- 
ants. A comprehensive discussion of 
such a subject by the Associated Press 
having offended the sensitivities of the 
American Catholicism, the news from 
Spain is classed with the Socialist news, 
and therefore, tabood. 

Difficult as it is to understand the 
merits of the Spanish controversy, it 
is also equally difficult to understand 
such details as the present disputed 
interpretation of the instrument of 
1851. known as the Concordat, unless 
we examine the relative claims, charac- 
ters and resources of the parties who 
are actively engaged in it. 

The situation in Spain is somewhat 
similar to the religious controversy, 
some few years ago, in France. But 
according to many exiles I have met 
in France and Switzerland, and still 
many hundreds whom I have inter- 
viewed during my visits in Spain, the 
controversy in Spain has but one side, 
that the Roman church is the all- 
oppressor, and that the Reds, the Peo- 
ple, the true State are the oppressed. 

The present unrest and consequent 
periodical outbursts in Spain can no 
longer be termed "riots." It is revolu- 
tion, pure and simple, and the 3rd of 
July, 1910, will go down in the history 
of the Spanish social unrest as the 
Spanish declaration of independence. 
The battle between the Reds and the 
Blacks has been declared, and the 
Spanish proletarian Avill never with- 
draw from the field of action, until the 
last stronghold of the Roman church 
is overthrown, and the so-called "State" 
becomes a free institution for free men 
and women. 

Bombastic as this statement may 
sound, nevertheless, it is uttered every 
day on street corners of all Spanish 
cities, towns and hamlets, and pro- 
claimed with such zeal and ardor that, 
compared with the ultra anarchistic 
views and ideas of the Barcelonan 
proletariat our own Emma Goldman's 
so-called bugle-call-for-violence sinks 
into the deep insignificance of one of 
our numerous Sunday-soap-box-orato- 
ries in the Boston Common. 

Almost all liberal parties of Europe 
admit that it is about time Rome 
loosened her centuries-long grip upon 
the very life and soul of the Spanish 

Anarchists have, for the last 75 years 
demanded the institution of a State, 
constructed by free men of free con- 
science, unperturbed by dogma, unmo- 
lested by Rome-made law, and without 
fear and favor. In return, for the last 
75 years, the Roman church hurled 
calumnies at all the liberty loving 
Spaniards, be they Anarchists, Social- 
ists or Radicals, that would free Span- 
ish people from the Roman yoke. 
Whether advocated by Anarchists, 
Socialists or Radicals, it is impossible 
to introduce modern studies into the 
so-called Spanish educational institu- 
tions. Scientific books are prohibited. 
The press of the country is muffled, 
and the radical newspapers are in con- 
stant danger of confiscation. The illi- 
teracy of the people is encouraged and 
ignorance is the mightiest sinew of 
war at the disposal of the Roman 
church, consequently poverty is ram- 

Visit with me one of the Spanish vil- 
lages and join the throng. "What a piti- 
ful sight ! If you know the past of this 
nation, j'ou would wonder if there are 
the real descendants of that illustrious 



race. Then you would say to yourself, 
''ijrnorance knows no race, sex or creed."' 
The sun shines on a crowd that has for 
many centuries suffered humiliation, 
alternately under the Moslem and 
Koman tyranny. They congregate in 
groups in the street corners, in cafes, 
drinking houses and bazaars. 

Watch them, observe them closely, 
they are ill fed and undersized. Espe- 
cially the women, these off-spring of 
poverty, women, the very "ramparts" of 
the Romans power in Spain, they even 
attempt to look happy. The woman of 
Spain with her exquisite charms is a 
legend and belongs to the Spanish 
mj'thology. Any how, she is not of the 
proletariat. She is not to be found on 
street corners, neither is she in villages, 
nor is she of the peasant. She lives in 
palaces and travels in carriages. Watch 
them, contrast them, then go to your 
hotel and think. You do not have to 
spend many hours thinking. You will 
find out, you will understand why the 
spirit of unrest in Spain always allies 
itself with that incarnation of direct 
and vehement protest — the Anarchy. 
Previous to your arrival in Spain you 
may have been a Radical, or a near 
Socialist or an Italian, or even a Marx- 
Socialist, but once you arrived in Bar- 
celona, no matter what your economic 
creed or tag might ^have be*en, you 
become an out-an-out rebel. You will 
never listen to such terms or "tactics," 
"ballots," or "economic determinisms." 
You observe the institutions of the 
country, you watch these people, and 
you raise your voice and unintention- 
ally your fist. 

Follow these people, if possible, to 
their homes. What do you find? Pov- 
erty. Poverty, everywhere. A^^lat does 
the government do for them ? But who 
owns the government? The Roman 
church. Who does the Roman church 
represent? The Spanish capitalists. 
When I say the government, I mean 
the church. In Spain the State does 
not exist. It is the church, the one and 

all. Rome and those of Rome control 
the destinies of the country. It does 
not matter whether it be the Radicals, 
or the Conservatives who are in power, 
it is always Rome that rules. If 
the revolutionary element try to intro- 
duce education as a remedy to poverty 
in Spain, they arouse, first the suspi- 
cion, then the fear, and consequently 
the ire of the Roman Church. They 
are persecuted, imprisoned and even 
shot in cold blood. You may say that 
it is the government that does the per- 
secuting. But did you ever reason with 
yourself, why does the government 
persecute? It persecutes for the 
Church. Because it pleases the 
Church ; nay, it is the hand of Rome 
that guides and directs the acts of the 
State. Why does Rome still oppose the 
present religious bill? Why should 
an instrument restoring freedom by 
recognizing the freedom of thought 
and conscience be opposed by Rome? 
It is plain : because Spain is the last 
strong-hold of the tottering Roman 

Freedom of conscience in Spain 
means the freedom of thought, and the 
freedom of thought means the freedom 
of all religious humbugery. So far as 
the Revolutionary elements are con- 
cerned, they did not care for the late 
Canalejas Ministry, and the Canalejas 
policies any more than we in this coun- 
try care for the "Reformists." They 
are considered one and all, the children 
of tyranny. But yet, the Revolution- 
ary element supported Canalejas while 
he stood for the abrogation of the Con- 
cordat of 1851. 

The political situation in Spain Avas 
quite serious previous to the passage of 
the French Law of Separation. After 
the expulsion of the French Friars 
their colonization in Spain rendered 
the amicable solution of the religious 
controversy in Spain impossible. From 
that date the Roman grip upon the 
Spanish situation began to tighten. 
The Spanish prelate re-enforced by the 



incoming French Orders, at once delved 
into the politics with all their might. 
Enriched by the wealth brought into 
the ranks of the Spanish clergy by the 
expelled Friars, the Spanish clergy 
soon dominated the Conservative i^arty 
completely. They immediately took 
the initiative and began a campaign of 
persecution of all the Liberal institu- 
tions and all those who advocated reli- 
gious and civil liberty as the only 
means to redeem Spain from degener- 
acy as a nation. Until then the oppress- 
ive methods of the Conservative party 
w^ere directed against the establishment 
of free institutions, which they feared 
would cause social aw-akening. The 
Conservative party in Spain as else- 
where, is the party of the Privileged 
Rich, deriving its power from the 
ignorance and credulity of both the 
rich and the poor. The Conservative 
party and the Si^anish prelates realized 
the impending danger from the intro- 
duction of modern Liberal institutions 
throughout Spain. 

The industrial awakening would 
inevitably be followed with revolt 
against the power of Rome in Spain. 
Furthermore, the Church property 
being untaxed, the Church Industrial 
Establishments became profitable ven- 
tures. Later Roman clerg}^ in Spain 
became manufacturers. They competed 
with the secular manufacturers. The 
State-taxed manufacturers declared 
war against the privileged clergy- 
capitalist, and declared himself a Radi- 
cal. In fact, the combat between the 
Conservatives and the Radicals, in 
Spain, is a dispute between the two 
capitalist elements. Fortunately, a con- 
siderable portion of the Spanish work- 
ing men know this fact. 

The army, the navy, the wealth of 
the nation were at the disposal of the 
Conservatives, while the clergy held a 
monopoly upon the very souls of the 
ignorant classes, both rich and poor, 
who unfortunately compose the major- 
ity in Spain. The clergy entered the 

held of politics. As in days gone by, 
tlirough the machinery of the Church, 
the Conservative ranks were filled with 
the Roman Catholic Faith and Zeal. 
Those who refused to surrender them- 
selves, body and soul, into the hands 
of the ever designing Spanish Priest- 
hood were dealt with political annihi- 
lation. If he further opposed the 
Roman Church he was anathamatized, 
which in its Anglo-Saxon interpreta- 
tion, means a boycott. Every Spaniard 
knows that, once a merchant or a 
tradesman is damned by the Roman 
Church, he might as well take to the 
mountains. But if he is a man of extra- 
ordinary character, and still questions 
the authority of the Church, he is 
accused as a dangerous Anarchist. 
Numerous traps are laid for him, and 
eventually he falls into the hands of 
civil authorities. He might be given 
the right to a public trial. But again 
all the machinery of the Church is 
summoned. The priests visit the homes 
of all the prospective witnesses who 
may be expected to testify favorably to 
the accused. Through their absolute 
control over the women of Spain, the 
clergy exert a malignant influence over 
the daily lives of the people. It is 
absolutely impossible for the outside 
world to comprehend the magnitude of 
the relentless power of the Church in 
Spain, unless one lives there and sees 
daily concrete illustrations of Rome's 
sinister designs to retard progresss in 
Spain. The already poverty stricken 
Spanish people are taxed to the utmost 
to sustain two tyrannical institutions, 
called the State and the Church. These 
institutions are daily enriched through 
the very ignorance of the majority. 
Consequently any attempt to awaken 
them is considered dangerous. We 
admit it is dangerous to their power, 
but the progress of the truth must not, 
and should not be retarded. 

With all her magnificent modern 
institutions, it was quite a task for 
France to accomplish her aims in deal- 



ing with Rome regarding the abroga- 
tion of the Concordat between France 
and Rome. 

But PVance fought only her own 
religious orders. On the other hand 
Spain had to deal with both French and 
Spanish Orders combined. Again, the 
Church in Spain, through their abso- 
lute control of the State, is in power. 

Some years ago, when I lived inter- 
mittently in Paris, London, and vari- 
ous cities and towns of Switzerland, 
myself an exile, I had the exquisite 
pleasure of coming in contact with 
hundreds of Spanish political refugees. 
I always admired them, but wondered 
why they were more Anarchistic 
instead of being Socialists. But once 
you know the country and its inhabi- 
tants, you know the truth about this 
curious fact. Anarchy in Spain is the 
protest of the "Soul oppressed." AVith 
the few who have taken a wider range, 
it has been usual to consider, or look 
upon the Spanish struggle for liberty 
as the w^rangling of the ignorant and 
the discontented element. The press of 
Europe, especially the Associated 
OPress of Ainerica, always refers to 
them as Anarchist rioters and mobs. 
They are always accused of being 
materialistic. On the contrary, the 
Spanish Revolutionists are the real 

The Socialism of Spain invisibly 
approached its object, and once having 
made reasonable progress it suddenly 
burst. It had attained its perfection 
amongst the "thinking proletariat" 
Ijefore the masses knew its true mission 
or object, and once understood, its 
grand principles have spread and its 
progress can no longer be retarded. 
Before the appearance of Socialism iiv 
Spain, the people did not think: that 
is, they did not do their own thinking. 
They allowed Rome and those of Rome 
to think for them. They suffered, but 
they did not realize why, or whence. 
The Socialists simply told them what 
ailed them. They listened to them. 

They began to think for themselves, 
and incidentally they ceased to allow 
those of Rome to think for them. Hence 
the present awakening, or term it 
unrest, if you wish. Paradoxical this 
assertion may seem; nevertheless, it is 
the only comprehensible explanation 
of the present attitude of the Spanish 
people toward Rome. Thousands of 
these idealists have dared prison, and 
even death, while other thousands left 
their native land for foreign climes. 

Franco Don Magur, of Barcelona, is 
one of those fearless soldiers in the 
cause of freedom. On my arival in 
Barcelona I visitetl his cell to renew our 
old acquaintance that was made some 
years ago in Berne, Switzerland, when 
we both were the members of the exile 
colony. He had just finished a two 
months' sentence and was released the 
day after my visit. But every time he 
left the prison he became more aggres- 
sive and zealous. 

He is a man of about forty-five years 
of age, and for the last twenty-five 
years he has been one of the most active 
members of both the local and the 
international Revolutionary organiza- 

After Francisco Ferrar's release 
after his first trial, Don Magur 
returned to Barcelona, but after the 
second arrest of Ferrar, he again left 
his native land to take part in agitat- 
ing a series of demonstrations in 
France and elsewhere, in favor of his 
teacher. He was often arrested in differ- 
ent European countries, but he always 
managed to obtain his release without 
serious difficulty. The police of Europe 
never discovered his true identity. 
Although a follower of late Francisco 
Ferrar, and a disciple of Elise Reclus, 
he openlj^ advocates physical force to 
back up what he preached, whenever it 
becomes necessary. Don Magur is a 
i:)rosperous farmer. 

"I do not indulge in the hope of see- 
ing immediate and sweeping changes 
accomplished. There may, and will be 



bloodshed, and many a bloody uprising 
before our end is attained. The pres- 
ent impulse of enlightenment is suffi- 
cient to set in motion the stream of 
public spirit, to carry the stubbornest 
mudbank of ignorance. Our mission 
is to preach the gospel of discontent 
and the education of the people under 
all difficulties. Regiments of our com- 
rades have offered themselves upon the 
altar of persecution. May their sacred 
blood some day atone the goddess of 
liberty, and the sweet enjoyment of 
freedom no longer seem far and 
improbable.'' He wrote me once : 

"If once our people are a little 
enlightened, the merit of the Roman 
Church will be reduced to its just pro- 

portion ; it will no longer be magnified 
to their eyes by the mists of their own 
ignorance. Then the fallacies of its 
doctrines — or, rightly speaking, the rot- 
tenness of the whole system will 
appear in its true form and color, and 
its followers will wonder by what 
strange infatuations they can have so 
long mistaken them for single virtues. 
Then it will be time to discuss more 
particularly the exact nature of the 
changes most adapted to our political 
and educational institutions; with what 
limitations the grand principles of 
Socialism can be rendered in estab- 
lishing a free society composed of 
free individuals, should be fol- 

Our Southern Centenaries: John C. Fremont, 
Neglected Hero, Etc. 

Roy Temple House 

(Professor in the State University of Oklahoma) 

THE j^ear that saw the smoke clear 
away from our second struggle 
with England is remarkable for 
the large number of prominent South- 
erners whose birth it witnessed. The 
Civil War came just half a century 
later, and these men of fifty were at 
just the age to be responsible leaders 
in that period of crisis. The sons of 
the year 1813, were for the most part 
men of action, and an inspiring cata- 
logue it is. 

South Carolina's roll of honor is an 
especially long one. Her forty-third 
governor^ the determined Scotch-Irish- 
man Andrew Gordon McGrath, was 
the son of an Irish revolutionist who 
was driven from his native island as a 
result of his part in the Rebellion of 
1798. The son, a graduate of South 
Carolina College, and the Harvard 
Law School, was a United States Judge 

in his home State when the news came 
of Lincoln's election to the Presidency. 
Judge McGrath's comment became the 
Southern rallying-cry : "The time for 
deliberation has passed; the time for 
action has come." He led the secession 
movement in the first State to leave the 
Union, and was Governor during the 
period of deep depression and financial 
stringenc}^ that ended with the capture 
and sacking of the Capital by the Fede- 
ral troops. The Governor was arrested 
and imprisoned in Fort Pulaski, but 
was released on parole in December, 
1865, and resumed the practice of law 
in Charleston. He was one of the keen- 
est debaters of his time, and as a 
speaker, was celebrated for his com- 
mand of historic and literary allusion. 
His death occurred in Charleston 
twenty years ago. 

Another South Carolina Governor of 



the same age who appeared quite as 
prominently in the struggle was Mil- 
ledge Luke Bonham, grandson of a 
partisan captain in the Revolutionary 
War. Educated also at South Carolina 
College, he saw a period of service in 
the Seminole War, but was admitted 
to the bar in 1837. His record from 
that time swings back and forth 
between the law and the navy. Colonel 
in the Mexican War, Military Governor 
of a Mexican province, Prosecuting 
Attorney for the Southern District of 
South Carolina, member of the 
National Congress, Major-General in 
command of the South Carolina Pro- 
visional Army, he fought bravely at 
Blackburn's Ford and Manassas. After 
a short period of service in the Con- 
federate Congress, he became Governor 
of his State in 1863, but soon returned 
to the army, and held a command under 
Johnson when that officer surrendered 
to General Sherman. He returned to 
politics during and after the period of 
reconstruction, helped nominate Sey- 
mour and Blair, and fought fiercely 
with General Wade Hampton in 1876 
against the Carpet-Bag evil. He died 
in Virginia in 1890. 

It was South Carolina also, who gave 
birth to the robust Mississippi War 
Governor, Albert Gallatin Brown. A 
school mate of Jefferson Davis at Jef- 
ferson College, a colonel of militia at 
19, and a brigadier-general at 20, he 
began the practice of law at 21, and was 
one of the fourteen Southern members 
of the United States Senate who met 
in caucus on the 6th of January, 1861, 
and decided to advise their States to 
secede. He organized his own com- 
pany and fought through several 
months of the war, but served during 
the greater part of the struggle in the 
Confederate Senate. Disfranchised at 
the conclusion of the war, he neverthe- 
less braved unpopularity by advising 
the Southern people to submit to Con- 
gressional Reconstruction. 

Montgomery Blair, of Kentucky, 

West Point graduate, Seminole War 
veteran, counsel for the plaintiff in the 
Dred Scott case, was no such thorough- 
going Southernor as the three gover- 
nors we have discussed. President 
Buchanan removed him from the office 
of Solicitor at the United States Court 
of Claims because he opposed the 
extreme measures of the Sectional 
Democrats; but a few years later he 
resigned from Lincoln's cabinet 
because he could not agree with the 
vigorously repressive measures of the 
party in power. As Postmaster-Gene- 
ral he had been responsible for an unu- 
sually large number of improvements, 
including the institution of free city 
delivery, money orders, and the sort- 
ing and distributing of mail on cars. 
He spent the last years of his life in 
retirement, from which he emerged 
onlj^ once, for a vigorous attack on the 
Hayes-Tilden electoral decision. 

A Southernor by birth, but a North- 
erner in sympathies, and a restless 
wanderer by nature, was John C. Fre- 
mont, of Savannah, son of an adven- 
turous French father, and an aristo- 
cratic Virginia mother. The boy was 
a brilliant student in South Carolina 
College, but his turbulent disposition 
resulted in his expulsion, and after 
some years of uncertainty he became 
a civil engineer. His private marriage 
to the youthful daughter of Senator 
Thomas H. Benton, had the air of 
another characteristic indiscretion, but 
when his father-in-law was finally 
placated, it was his influence that 
secured for the young rover the com- 
mand of the first of those famous West- 
ern expeditions which secured him the 
title of '-The Pathfinder." The story of 
the aventures and hardships encoun- 
tered by Fremont and his party is one 
of the most exciting pages in our 
annals, and not Kit Carson himself, 
who was one of the band, showed more 
audacity and endurance than the impul- 
sive Frenchman in charge. It was Fre- 
mont's report of the natural advanta- 



ges of Utah that induced the Mormons 
to take up their residence there. "Win- 
ning Northern California from the 
Mexicans and holding ir against Eng- 
land, then quarreling Avith General 
Kearney and sentenced by a Court- 
Martial to dismissal from the service; 
decorated by European Governments, 
and unable to" hold a seat in the United 
States Senate from the State he had 
added to the Union; the bravest of 
Federal generals in the Civil AVar, but 
relieved of the command of the West- 
ern Army because he could not agree 
with his subordinates; this gifted child 
of impulse, forgotten by the Govern- 
ment for which he had repeatedly 
risked his life, had reached the brink 
of actual destitution, when Congress, 
in 1890, voted to place him on the 
retired list as Major-General and allow 
him a comfortable income for the 
remainder of his life. The melancholy 
story is completed by his death within 
four months after this action was 

A noble officer of the period who did 
not live to take part in sectional con- 
troversy, but whose death was quite 
equal in gallantry to any death on 
Southern battle-fields, was Commander 
"William Lewis Herndon, of the United 
States Navy. Commander Herndon 
was a Virginian, and earned a place 
among useful investigators by a study 
of the valley of the Amazon, made in 
1850, for the purpose of promoting 
commercial intercourse between the 
United States and Brazil. In 1857, 
having in the meantime been detached 
from the naval service proper, and put 
in charge of the mail line between New 
York and Central America, he sailed 
from Havana in an unseaworthy old 
ship, crowded with passengers from 
the California gold fields and carrying 
gold which has been estimated at two 
million dollars in value. Three days 
out the ship steamed into a cyclone, 
which put out her fires. When Com- 
mander Herndon discovered that she 

had sprung a leak, he managed to trans- 
fer the women and children to a pass- 
ing brig, but went down himself with 
4(')2 others. There is a monument to 
his memory at the Annapolis Naval 
Academy. His daughter was the wife 
of President Chester A. Arthur. 

Another South Carolinian, Dr. 
James Marion Sims, was the ablest 
gynecologist of his generation. He 
established the New York Woman's 
Hospital, operated before the most dis- 
tinguished surgeons of Europe in 
Paris, Brussels, London and Dublin, 
and received decorations from half a 
dozen European governments. His 
Anglo-American ambulance, in the 
Franco-Prussian War, is said to have 
treated 1,600 Frenchmen and 1,000 Ger- 
mans. His duck-billed speculum made 
possible a sort of operation which had 
never even been attempted before its 
invention, and he revolutionized the 
treatment of strabismus, club-foot and 
infantile lock-jaw. Another distin- 
guished surgeon of the same age was 
Professor James Lawrence Cabell of 
the Medical Fraternity of the Univer- 
sity of Virginia, whose volume on 
"The Unity of Mankind," published in 
1858. attracted considerable attention 
in its day. 

To this list of men of affairs and 
students of practical matters must be 
added one brilliant evidence that even 
this generation of Southerners did not 
lack the artistic sense. Christopher P. 
Cranch, of Virginia, graduated from 
the Harvard Divinity School and 
preached for several years; but after 
lie had passed his thirtieth year he 
turned his attention to landscape 
painting, studied in Europe and exhi- 
bited much applauded canvasses at the 
Paris salons and elsewhere. Later still 
he took up writing, published a credi- 
table translation of the "Aeneid," wrote 
some popular children's stories, and 
voiced his optimistic spirit in several 
volumes of graceful verse. His poems 
are never pregnant or epigrammatic, 



but flow on for the most part very 
deliberately through a long series of 
simple quatrains; yet for all his appar- 
ently studious care to avoid elaborate- 
ness or affectation of cleverness, they 
often sparkle with ingenious rhymes 
and skillful turns of expresion. They 
very frequently close with an expres- 
sion of religious devotion, and are inva- 
riably warm with hope and cheerful- 
ness. His philosophy of life — and is 
it not the philosophy of his generation 
in the South? — is charmingly put in 
the often quoted verses entitled, "Old 
and Young." 

They soon grow old who grope for gold 

In marts where all is bought and sold ; 

Who live for self, and on some shelf 

In darkened vaults hoard up their 


Cankered and coated o'er with mould, 

For them their youth itself is old. 

They ne'er grow old who gather gold 
Where spring awakes and flowers 
unfold ; 
Where suns arise in joyous skies 
And flll the soul within their eyes. 
For them the immortal bards have 

For them old age itself is young. 


Ralph M. Thompson 

I spoke a word to one held dear^ 

That made his soul, aggrieved, to smart ^ 
And feeling inhere were none to hear, 

Concealed the knowledge in my heart. 

I did to one a deed unkind — 

A ruthless deed that brought dismay; 
And thinking that the world was blind, 

Smiled blandly in the face of day. 

But when I strove with super-might 
To baffle Guilt, the nagging elf^ 

Despite the darkness of the night, 

I could not hide me from — myself. 

I / 







Dear Mr. Watson: Will you answer the 
following questions: 

1. How are National Banks established? 
What is the law concerning such banks? 

2. What do the banks give in return 
for the privilege of issuing "greenbacks?" 

3. In North Carolina the legal rate of 
interest is 6 per cent. Can banks charge 
8 per cent and take the full 8 per cent out 
at the time that your loan commences, and 
not at the time when said loan is paid? 
Now, by what right has a corporation, an 
artificial person, to charge more interest 
than a man, a natural person? 

4. Is there any State or national law 
which makes it lawful for the one — corpo- 
rations — to charge 8 per cent, and at the 
same time make it unlawful for other, 
individual persons to charge 8 per cent on 
money which they may have to loan? 

Yours very truly, 



By the Acts of 1864 (June 3,) "any 
number of persons, not less in any case 
than five," may enter into articles of asso- 
ciation to establish a national bank, and 
who send a copy of the articles to the 
Comptroller of the Currency, may sign up 
a certificate stating the proposed name, 
place of business, capital stock, sharehold- 
ers, etc. of the association, can establish a 
national bank, under terms of the Act. 

In brief, the association must deposit 
certain securities — bonds of the U. S. — 
upon which notes are issued to it by the 
Government. These notes are called in 
the Act, "national currency" and "money;" 
but they are, in fact, neither the one nor 
the other. They are not legal tender, and 
cannot be made so. They are a mere sub- 
terfuge, allowing the national bankers' 
notes to do what the Government's own 
notes should do. 

The untaxed bonds which are deposited 
with the Government continue to yield 
interest to the owners. The notes issued 
on the bonds earn another interest ON 

Upon the sum total of notes in circula- 

tion, the banks pay one-half of one per 
cent tax, twice a year. 

That is, the banks draw all the iucerept 
on the untaxed bonds, and all the com- 
pound interest on the notes issued on the 
bonds — less 1 per cent tax per annum. 

This trivial tax hardly compensates the 
Government for the expense of vaults, 
engraving, book-keeping, supervision, etc. 

In other words, the Government sur- 
renders to a few capitalists the tremen- 
dous power and profit of creating and con- 
trolling the acting money of the country, 
and the Government gets nothing in return. 

Ours is the only Government that ever 
granted monopolies to private individuals 
without exacting a price. 

Ours is the only Government that ever 
voluntarily and gratuitously surrendered 
to greedy individuals the vast sovereign 
prerogatives of government. 

In addition to being given the credit of 
the Government (the bonds) as a private 
privilege to issue money on, the Govern- 
ment donates an average of forty million 
dollars a year of the people's taxes to 
these private bankers. Of course, the 
bankers lend the $40,000,000 back to the 
people at the highest rate of interest. 
Thus the people pay the bankers twice for 
that which belongs to the people. 

First: The people pay the bankers for 
the notes based upon the people's credit; 
to-wit, the bonds; 

Second: The people pay the bankers for 
the privilege of borrowing their own tax- 
money — which tax-money the Government 
hands over to the bankers after the people 
have paid it. 

As a device for enriching a few, at the 
expense of the money, can the national 
bank system be excelled? 

No wonder J. P. Morgan can invest $50,- 
000,000 in pictures. 

2. Nothing. 

3. They have not the right. 

Under section 30 of the original bank 
act, the national banks are prohibited from 
charging more interest than the legal rate 
of the State wherein the national banks 
may locate. 

4. No. The legal rate of interest in a 
State applies to all, alike. Any other 
attempted provision, w^ould be null and 




By the original national bank act, the 
limit of issue was put at $300,000,000. 
This limit allowed the national bankers to 
control about one-half of the paper cur- 
rency of the country. 

The law has been changed, the limit 
removed, and the national bankers now 
issue $750,000,000 of the paper money. 

Therefore, the banks now control two- 
thirds, since the Government has only 
$346,000,000 of Greenbacks left. 

The real truth is, that Morgan's Money 
Trust controls both the Government and 
the people. 

The absolute, sovereign power in this 
republic is Wall Street and its financiers. 

Our President, Cabinets, Senators, etc., 
are the poor puppets of the hour. They 
move as the unseen powers behind the 
screen dictate. No matter how free the 
puppets seem, nor how loud they talk, they 
are nothing but puppets of the passing 
hour. T. E. W. 


Dear Mr. Watson: 

1. Does the Ogeechee Rii^er belong to 
the Government or to individuals? 

2. Can any one owning river swamp 
land, where line is on bank of river, run 
their line to middle of river? Can they 
sell to that line? 

Yours truly, 

Halcyondale, Ga. 

1. If any part of it is navigable by 

ordinary vessels of regular traffic, freight 
or passenger, government control applies, 
but the ownership of the water and of the 
land covered by the water, belongs to the 
State. Along that portion of the river 
which is not navigable, both the water and 
the land belong to private individuals. 

Proprietors on either side meet in the 
middle of the river. 

2. Enclosures that would not violate 
our fish laws could be erected by the pri- 
vate owners. 

3. Yes. There seems to be a wide- 
spread misunderstanding on this subject. 
Water-power and power-sites along our 
navigable rivers, belong to tne States, and 
not to the V. S. Government. The States 
own the land and the water. The Govern- 
ment has no further right than is con- 
nected with the control of navigation and 
commerce. T. E. W. 


Dear Mr. Watson: I take this from a 
published article of the president of a 
liquor dealers' association: 

"All distilled goods are, by the laws of 
the United States Government required, 
immediately upon manufacture, to be 
stored in a government bonded ware- 

Now I have been told that these liquors 
can be kept there even for years free of 
charge — that the taxpayers bear this 
expense. Is it true? 

Please answer in the Magazine. I am 
a subscriber. Yours truly, 


$10.00 For a Life Subscription 

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Sent to you for your life. For a remittance of sixteen 
dollars we will send you both publications for life. 

THOS. E. WATSON, President Jeffersonian Publishing Co. 





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Branch Stores: Pittsburg, Pa., and St. Louis, Mo. 


Pate has written a tragedy; its name is 

"The Human HeJirt." 
The theatre is the House of Life, Woman 

the mummer's part: 
The Devil enters the prompter's box and 

the play is ready to start. 

"The Parson's Son" is a sermon in 
itself. "The Lure of Little Voices," "The 
Pines," and "The Law of the Yukon" are 
all worth reading — and thinking about. 

The book is well printed and substanti- 
ally bound, and the author has chosen for 
his themes, the every-day matters of the 
regions he writes about. A. L. L. 

HAPPY VOICES: a collection of gospel 
songs especially suited for Sunday 
Schools and young peoples' societies. 
Composed and published by J. L. 
Moore, Bethlehem, Ga. 

This collection of songs, as the author's 
note indicates, is arranged with the object 
of giving simple harmonies to the young 
people for use in their meetings. Priced 
at fifteen cents, it is quite likely to become 
a favorite at young folks' meetings. 

A. L. L. 


liam J. Lampton. The Neale Pub- 
lishing Co., New York City. 

Mr. Lampton is too well known to need 
an introduction to the reading public and 
as a lampoonist he has reached his limit 
in the "Tame Animal" book. 

His "thoughtful and tender dedication" 
to "such nature fakers as still survive," is 
considerate — it being supposed that any 
of the fakers who read a description, and 
recognized same, of themselves, as set 
forth in the book, would simply go off to 

gr^m^ C^Ia 5,000 /ICRES OF LAND 

Ideal Land For Corn, Highland Cotton 
and General Farming 

Partly Improved 

Heavily Timbered 

For Terms Apply to 

Thos» E» Watson, - Thomson, Georgia 



the woods and hide till death claimed 

As to the animals, we have all met 'em, 
from Maria, the Cat, Bessie the Bird, Mary 
the Dove — down or up to Algernon the 

For the benefit of sundry Marias' on 
the globe we wish Mr. Lampton would get 
his study of her up in pamphlet form — it 
would be a best seller around Valentines' 
Day. * * * "if she came into a room 
where there was the faintest odor of 
tobacco smoke, she sniffed like a war- 
horse smelling the battle, not afar off, as 
the Scripture hath it, but immediately 
around the corner; * * * an(j no 
man who knew her dared come into her 
presence after imbibing an encouraging 
tonic and nerve strengthener until he had 
chewed a whole handful of cardamon 
seeds * * *" A. L. L. 

Damner. The Neale Publishing Com- 
pany, New York City. 
There is one period of history in the 
South that it will take a great many more 
years to remove the sting from, and that 
is the time known as the "carpet-bag" era, 
or re-construction days. 

To the Southerner, born and bred, the 
memory of that time is a poignant horror, 
and to their children and their childrens' 


pay is hlKb and Rure; hours short; places 
permanent; nromotlDDs re(fnl«r;vacatl' ns 
with pay; thousands of vacancies; all kinds 
of pleasant work everywhere; no lay-offs; 
no puil needed; common cilucation suttl- 
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you writet.iilay forhookli-t H-n:io. It is fr«>e 










This name does not do fuatlce 
to the vast scope and Import- 
ance of the book. It Is really a 
dynamic expose of the entire 
rotten Roman system, BUY the 
BOOK I Price $1.1 2, postpaid. 

Thomson, - Georgia 


Order One of These! 

MARIA MONK'S BOOK is a disclosure 
of the frightful immorality and crime in 
the Roman Catholic convents. 
On sale at the office of The Jeffersonian 
Publishing Company for fifty cents. By 
mail, prepaid, sixty cents. Order now. 

Jeffersonian Pub. Co., Thomson, Ga. 




children, the memory of their grandpar- 
ents' and parents" suffering will be always 
a bitter memory. 

Eyre Damer, in giving his book to the 
world, tries to portray the real status ol' 
the Ku Klux Clan, and while his narrative 
is cool and dispassionate, he has skimmed 
lightly over matters which he might have 

To anyone who is really interested, from 
the viewpoint of the student, in the era 
Mr. Damer's book treats of, the book itse'^' 
will be found interesting, and it is well 
worth reading. A. L. L. 

The Telfair Sanitarium 

W. G. ASHWORTH, M. D., Supt. 

THE SEIGE; John S. Williams. The Cos- 
mopolitan Press, New York City. 

To those readers who think the real, 
old-fashioned love story has been lost, we 
would recommend the tale of John S. Wil- 
liams. It is the sort of story which our 
Mothers and Grandmothers used to weep 
over and lend to their bosom friends. It 
is a story of "The Late Unpleasantness," 
of the 60's, and as all well-regulated love 
tales should, concerns a man, a maid, 
some other folks and a plot that is worth 

It will be a refreshing change from the 
problem plays and books and is not a book 
to keep from one's younger frv. 

A. L. L. 

A strictly ethical Institution, offering superior 
advantages for the scientific treatment of NER- 
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rooms, well heated and lighted and fully 
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The Story of France 


Thos. E. Watson^s Masterpiece 

Chosen by the French Scholars as such 


The Jeffetsonian Publishing Co. 

Thomson, Georgia 



PENDEXCE. By Sydney George 
Fisher. J. B. Lippincott & Co., Phila- 
delphia, Publishers. 
In my preparatory studies for the Life 
and Times of Thomas Jefferson, and of 
Andrew Jackson, I found a rich mine of 
information in Men, Women and Manners 
of Colonial Times, by Sydney George 

Therefore, when his more recent work, 
whose title appears above, came from the 
press, I confidently expected a book in 
which there would be found the evidence 
of laborious research into original authori- 
ties, careful sifting of contradictory nar- 
ratives, and a judicious summing up by an 
impartial, conscientious judge — and the 

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two volumes now under consideration fully 
meet those expectations. 

Without any special inclination to decry 
Henry Cabot Lodge's hastily prepared 
Story of the Revolution, nor to say any- 
thing particularly mean and nasty about 
Woodrow Wilson's alleged History of the 
American people, I can, with a clear con- 
science and a decided relish recommend 
Mr. Fisher's great survey of the Revo- 
lutionary War, its causes, its progress, its 
surrounding circumstances, and its perma- 
nently important results. 

Mr. Fisher is one of those patient stud- 
ents who exhausts all possible sources of 
original information. He goes to the foun- 
tain-head for his facts. He takes nothing 
at second hand, or by hearsay. 

Like Thierry and Gibbon, he may be 
slow; but when he is at length ready to 
write, he leaves little or nothing for others 
to say. 

In my judgment The StniKRle for Ameri- 
can Independence is incomparably the best 
history we have of the Revolutionary 
period. T. E. W. 

Other books received: 

Chambers. The Neale Publishing 

ger. The Cosmopolitan Press. 

VAGRANT VERSES, Modeste Hannis Jor- 
dan. The Cosmopolitan Press. 


7 ■ — — — *S* 


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Regarded by Critics and Scholars as one 
of the best histories of the Man of Destiny 








/\ New Book of Sketches 


This new book covers a wide field of literary research 

Here is a list of the articles which make up the new book: 

Contents Page 

Random Reminiscences of 
Toombs and Stephens 1 

The Wise Man and the Silly 
King 27 

A Gross Insult to the Scotch. . 38 
Robert Toombs: A Life Sketch; 
Some Anecdotes, and His Last 
Public Speech 57 

The Glory That Was Greece. . . 83 

Edgar A. Poe 101 

Wit and Humor 105 

The Egyptian Sphinx and the 

Negro 119 

Tlie Passing of Lucy and Rollo . 160 
Concerning Abraham Lincoln 

and the Civil War 166 

The Struggle of Church Against 

State in France 185 

With Brisbane at Delmonico's. 196 
The Roman Catholic Hierarchy 

and Pontics 216 

The Oddities of the Great 231 

Pages Lost from a Book 237 

Tolstoy and the Land 244 

The Stewardship 250 

The Reign of the Technicality. 254 

Contents Page 

Concerning Money 260 

A Bitter Attack Upon the South 267 

"Take the Cliildren" 279 

"Where Am I At?" 287 

The Man and the Land 290 

Is the Study of Latin and Greek 
Necessary to the Practical 

Lawyer? 316 

As to Orators and Oratory .... 324 
Socialism and One of Its Great 

Books 327 

Common Sense Education 343 

Some Aftermath of the Civil 
War (Stephens, Toombs, Ben 
Hill, the Ku Klux Klan, the 
Colquitt Campaign of 1880, 

Etc.) 349 

Teasing a Single Taxer 369 

Paper Money and John Law. . . 378 
The Dartmouth College Deci- 
sion 384 

Thos, E. Watson's Tribute to the 
Late Sam Jones on His Fif- 
tieth Birthday 390 

Our American Judicial Oligar- 
chy 398 

Beautifully illustrated Cloth Bound 


The Jeffersonian Publishing Co. 

Thomson, Georgia 



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Invaluable to Teachers and Students 

f^ONTMNS Platforms and History of Political Parties in 
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Is a Fearless, Independent Newspaper, 
handling all subjects relating to the Politi- 
cal or Religious welfare of our country,- 

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If you want to keep posted on National 
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77?^ Roman Catholics are encouraging Protestants 
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It is profusely illustrated. 

The price is 50 cents. We send it post-paid. 





^4. 4. 4, 4. 4, 4, 4, 4. 4* 4. 4. 4,^4, 4. 4. 4. 4, 4. 4. 4. 4* 4. 4* 4* 4. 4* 4. 4* 4* 4* )C 


ID YOU KNOW that, in England— 

The Roman CathoHc Hierarchy sup- 
pressed the book which informed the people 
of the lewd, obscene questions which bachelor 
priests put to women in the privacy of the Confes- 
sional Box? 

The Romanists not only suppressed the book, 
but punished the man who published it. 

In the State of California, they did the same 

They are now trying to repeat the process in the 
State of Georgia. 

You can see for yourself what those questions 
are by purchasing a copy of Watson's work, 

It is published and sold by this Company. 

The book is beautifully printed, on good paper, 
is illustrated with many pictures, is bound substan- 
tially in thick paper, and will tell you many things of 
the papacy which you don't know, and should know. 

Price, prepaid, = = = = = $1.00 
Six copies, one order, = = 5.00 
A dozen copies, one order, = 9.00 


Thomson, - Georgia 

^K$ *^f ^^T* ^^f ^^f* ^^f ^^f ^^f ^^f' ^^f* *^f* ^^f' ^^r' *^r* ^^^ ^^p' ^"^^ ^^p' ^^f' ^^f' ^^p* *^f ^^f ^^t^ ^^f ^^P' ^^p' ^^f ^^P* ^^P' ^^p^ ^^P' •^ 


T ' !■ ! ' ■ ! I T 

OW that Mr. Watson's trial is 
about to lift the cover from 
the Roman Catholic methods, 
showing the- relations between the 
priests and the women, the famous 
book containing the awful disclosures 
of MARIA MONK becomes a 
peculiarly interesting human docu- 

Of this startling work we have 
published our own edition, beauti- 
fully printed on good paper, with 
paper covers. 

Price, prepaid, .... 60 cents 
Six copies, one order, . . . $3.00 
Twelve copies, one order, . 5.00 




"^■ 1 ! ■ ! ! ■ ! T^ mn 





Rom an Catholic 


A Book which is the result of years of study 


CONTAINS historical data showing the evolution 
of the Papacy, and its adoption of Pagan cere= 

monies and rites. 

It cites Roman Catholic theological authorities 
whose instructions are -not fit to be placed on court 
records," according to the statement of the foreman 
of a Georgia Federal Grand Jury. 


PRICE $1.00, Postpaid 






Read the Latesl IVaison Book: 

A Briei Survey 


Pagan Civilization 


yifatson^s Reply to MSIindle 

Showing how, under Roman Catholicism, 
ignorance, degradation and superstition 
have always flourished. . • • • 

History cannot be denied, and history is 
quoted to prove th^ chargesimade. i^. 

This book is the outcome of the attack 
made by Vl/indle on Mr, t/l/atson's book, 
**The Roman Catholic Hierarchy*** '^ 


The book is now on the 'press. It is well 
printed, and bound in substantial paper 
covers, • • • 


Order from 

The Jeffersonian Publishing Co. 

Thomson, Georgia 


have been established over 60 YEARS. By our system of 
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